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Resting-state synchrony between the retrosplenial cortex and anterior medial cortical structures relates to memory complaints in subjective cognitive impairment.

Mon, 04/13/2015 - 12:30

Resting-state synchrony between the retrosplenial cortex and anterior medial cortical structures relates to memory complaints in subjective cognitive impairment.

Neurobiol Aging. 2015 Mar 14;

Authors: Yasuno F, Kazui H, Yamamoto A, Morita N, Kajimoto K, Ihara M, Taguchi A, Matsuoka K, Kosaka J, Tanaka T, Kudo T, Takeda M, Nagatsuka K, Iida H, Kishimoto T

Abstract
Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) is a clinical state characterized by subjective cognitive deficits without cognitive impairment. To test the hypothesis that this state might involve dysfunction of self-referential processing mediated by cortical midline structures, we investigated abnormalities of functional connectivity in these structures in individuals with SCI using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We performed functional connectivity analysis for 23 individuals with SCI and 30 individuals without SCI. To reveal the pathophysiological basis of the functional connectivity change, we performed magnetic resonance-diffusion tensor imaging. Positron emission tomography-amyloid imaging was conducted in 13 SCI and 15 nonSCI subjects. Individuals with SCI showed reduced functional connectivity in cortical midline structures. Reduction in white matter connections was related to reduced functional connectivity, but we found no amyloid deposition in individuals with SCI. The results do not necessarily contradict the possibility that SCI indicates initial cognitive decrements, but imply that reduced functional connectivity in cortical midline structures contributes to overestimation of the experience of forgetfulness.

PMID: 25862421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Is fMRI "noise" really noise? Resting state nuisance regressors remove variance with network structure.

Mon, 04/13/2015 - 12:30

Is fMRI "noise" really noise? Resting state nuisance regressors remove variance with network structure.

Neuroimage. 2015 Apr 7;

Authors: Bright MG, Murphy K

Abstract
Noise correction is a critical step towards accurate mapping of resting state BOLD fMRI connectivity. Noise sources related to head motion or physiology are typically modelled by nuisance regressors, and a generalised linear model is applied to regress out the associated signal variance. In this study, we use independent component analysis (ICA) to characterise the data variance typically discarded in this pre-processing stage in a cohort of 12 healthy volunteers. The signal variance removed by 24, 12, 6, or only 3 head motion parameters demonstrated network structure typically associated with functional connectivity, and certain networks were discernable in the variance extracted by as few as 2 physiologic regressors. Simulated nuisance regressors, unrelated to the true data noise, also removed variance with network structure, indicating that any group of regressors that randomly sample variance may remove highly structured "signal" as well as "noise." Furthermore, to support this we demonstrate that random sampling of the original data variance continues to exhibit robust network structure, even when as few as 10% of the original volumes are considered. Finally, we examine the diminishing returns of increasing the number of nuisance regressors used in pre-processing, showing that excessive use of motion regressors may do little better than chance in removing variance within a functional network. It remains an open challenge to understand the balance between the benefits and confounds of noise correction using nuisance regressors.

PMID: 25862264 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Aberrant Default-Mode Functional and Structural Connectivity in Heroin-Dependent Individuals.

Sun, 04/12/2015 - 14:00

Aberrant Default-Mode Functional and Structural Connectivity in Heroin-Dependent Individuals.

PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0120861

Authors: Ma X, Qiu Y, Tian J, Wang J, Li S, Zhan W, Wang T, Zeng S, Jiang G, Xu Y

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Little is known about connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in heroin-dependent individuals (HDIs). In the current study, diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) were combined to investigate both structural and functional connectivity within the DMN in HDIs.
METHODS: Fourteen HDIs and 14 controls participated in the study. Structural (path length, tracts count, (fractional anisotropy) FA and (mean diffusivity) MD derived from DTI tractography)and functional (temporal correlation coefficient derived from rs-fMRI) DMN connectivity changes were examined in HDIs. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to compare the structural/functional indices and duration of heroin use/Iowa gambling task(IGT) performance in HDIs.
RESULTS: HDIs had lower FA and higher MD in the tract connecting the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCUN) to right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), compared to the controls. HDIs also had decreased FA and track count in the tract connecting the PCC/PCUN and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), as well as decreased functional connectivity between the PCC/PCUN and bilateral PHG and MPFC, compared to controls. FA values for the tract connecting PCC/PCUN to the right PHG and connecting PCC/PCUN to the MPFC were negatively correlated to the duration of heroin use. The temporal correlation coefficients between the PCC/PCUN and the MPFC, and the FA values for the tract connecting the PCC/PCUN to the MPFC were positively correlated to IGT performance in HDIs.
CONCLUSIONS: Structural and functional connectivity within the DMN are both disturbed in HDIs. This disturbance progresses as duration of heroin use increases and is related to deficits in decision making in HDIs.

PMID: 25859661 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Alterations of functional connectivity among Resting-State Networks in hypothyroidism.

Sat, 04/11/2015 - 11:00

Alterations of functional connectivity among Resting-State Networks in hypothyroidism.

J Neuroendocrinol. 2015 Apr 8;

Authors: Singh S, Kumar M, Modi S, Kaur P, Shankar LR, Khushu S

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Hypothyroidism affects brain functioning as suggested by various neuroimaging studies. The primary focus of this study was to examine whether hypothyroidism would impact connectivity among resting state networks (RSNs) using resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI).
METHODS: 22 patients with hypothyroidism and 22 healthy controls were recruited and scanned by using rsfMRI. The data was analysed using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach that was applied on five RSNs that were identified using FSL software.
RESULTS: Hypothyroid patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity in the regions of the right fronto-parietal network (frontal pole), the medial visual network (lateral occipital gyrus, precuneus cortex and cuneus) and the motor network (precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, precuneus cortex, paracingulate gyrus, cingulate gyrus and supramarginal gyrus) as compared with healthy controls.
CONCLUSION: The reduced functional connectivity in the right fronto-parietal network, the medial visual network and the motor network suggests neuro-cognitive alterations in hypothyroid patients in the corresponding functions. However, the study would be further continued to investigate the effects of thyroxine treatment and correlation with neurocognitive scores in near future. These findings provide further interesting insights into our understanding of the action of thyroid hormone on the adult human brain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 25855375 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

Sat, 04/11/2015 - 11:00

Prenatal drug exposure affects neonatal brain functional connectivity.

J Neurosci. 2015 Apr 8;35(14):5860-9

Authors: Salzwedel AP, Grewen KM, Vachet C, Gerig G, Lin W, Gao W

Abstract
Prenatal drug exposure, particularly prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE), incurs great public and scientific interest because of its associated neurodevelopmental consequences. However, the neural underpinnings of PCE remain essentially uncharted, and existing studies in school-aged children and adolescents are confounded greatly by postnatal environmental factors. In this study, leveraging a large neonate sample (N = 152) and non-invasive resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared human infants with PCE comorbid with other drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and antidepressant) with infants with similar non-cocaine poly drug exposure and drug-free controls. We aimed to characterize the neural correlates of PCE based on functional connectivity measurements of the amygdala and insula at the earliest stage of development. Our results revealed common drug exposure-related connectivity disruptions within the amygdala-frontal, insula-frontal, and insula-sensorimotor circuits. Moreover, a cocaine-specific effect was detected within a subregion of the amygdala-frontal network. This pathway is thought to play an important role in arousal regulation, which has been shown to be irregular in PCE infants and adolescents. These novel results provide the earliest human-based functional delineations of the neural-developmental consequences of prenatal drug exposure and thus open a new window for the advancement of effective strategies aimed at early risk identification and intervention.

PMID: 25855194 [PubMed - in process]

Network structure shapes spontaneous functional connectivity dynamics.

Sat, 04/11/2015 - 11:00

Network structure shapes spontaneous functional connectivity dynamics.

J Neurosci. 2015 Apr 8;35(14):5579-88

Authors: Shen K, Hutchison RM, Bezgin G, Everling S, McIntosh AR

Abstract
The structural organization of the brain constrains the range of interactions between different regions and shapes ongoing information processing. Therefore, it is expected that large-scale dynamic functional connectivity (FC) patterns, a surrogate measure of coordination between brain regions, will be closely tied to the fiber pathways that form the underlying structural network. Here, we empirically examined the influence of network structure on FC dynamics by comparing resting-state FC (rsFC) obtained using BOLD-fMRI in macaques (Macaca fascicularis) to structural connectivity derived from macaque axonal tract tracing studies. Consistent with predictions from simulation studies, the correspondence between rsFC and structural connectivity increased as the sample duration increased. Regions with reciprocal structural connections showed the most stable rsFC across time. The data suggest that the transient nature of FC is in part dependent on direct underlying structural connections, but also that dynamic coordination can occur via polysynaptic pathways. Temporal stability was found to be dependent on structural topology, with functional connections within the rich-club core exhibiting the greatest stability over time. We discuss these findings in light of highly variable functional hubs. The results further elucidate how large-scale dynamic functional coordination exists within a fixed structural architecture.

PMID: 25855174 [PubMed - in process]

Methods and utility of EEG-fMRI in epilepsy.

Fri, 04/10/2015 - 12:30

Methods and utility of EEG-fMRI in epilepsy.

Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2015 Apr;5(2):300-12

Authors: van Graan LA, Lemieux L, Chaudhary UJ

Abstract
Brain activity data in general and more specifically in epilepsy can be represented as a matrix that includes measures of electrophysiology, anatomy and behaviour. Each of these sub-matrices has a complex interaction depending upon the brain state i.e., rest, cognition, seizures and interictal periods. This interaction presents significant challenges for interpretation but also potential for developing further insights into individual event types. Successful treatments in epilepsy hinge on unravelling these complexities, and also on the sensitivity and specificity of methods that characterize the nature and localization of underlying physiological and pathological networks. Limitations of pharmacological and surgical treatments call for refinement and elaboration of methods to improve our capability to localise the generators of seizure activity and our understanding of the neurobiology of epilepsy. Simultaneous electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI), by potentially circumventing some of the limitations of EEG in terms of sensitivity, can allow the mapping of haemodynamic networks over the entire brain related to specific spontaneous and triggered epileptic events in humans, and thereby provide new localising information. In this work we review the published literature, and discuss the methods and utility of EEG-fMRI in localising the generators of epileptic activity. We draw on our experience and that of other groups, to summarise the spectrum of information provided by an increasing number of EEG-fMRI case-series, case studies and group studies in patients with epilepsy, for its potential role to elucidate epileptic generators and networks. We conclude that EEG-fMRI provides a multidimensional view that contributes valuable clinical information to localize the epileptic focus with potential important implications for the surgical treatment of some patients with drug-resistant epilepsy, and insights into the resting state and cognitive network dynamics.

PMID: 25853087 [PubMed]

The Role of fMRI to Assess Plasticity of the Motor System in MS.

Fri, 04/10/2015 - 12:30

The Role of fMRI to Assess Plasticity of the Motor System in MS.

Front Neurol. 2015;6:55

Authors: Pantano P, Petsas N, Tona F, Sbardella E

PMID: 25852634 [PubMed]

Altered baseline brain activity in experts measured by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF): a resting state fMRI study using expertise model of acupuncturists.

Fri, 04/10/2015 - 12:30

Altered baseline brain activity in experts measured by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF): a resting state fMRI study using expertise model of acupuncturists.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2015;9:99

Authors: Dong M, Li J, Shi X, Gao S, Fu S, Liu Z, Liang F, Gong Q, Shi G, Tian J

Abstract
It is well established that expertise modulates evoked brain activity in response to specific stimuli. Recently, researchers have begun to investigate how expertise influences the resting brain. Among these studies, most focused on the connectivity features within/across regions, i.e., connectivity patterns/strength. However, little concern has been given to a more fundamental issue whether or not expertise modulates baseline brain activity. We investigated this question using amplitude of low-frequency (<0.08 Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) as the metric of brain activity and a novel expertise model, i.e., acupuncturists, due to their robust proficiency in tactile perception and emotion regulation. After the psychophysical and behavioral expertise screening procedure, 23 acupuncturists and 23 matched non-acupuncturists (NA) were enrolled. Our results explicated higher ALFF for acupuncturists in the left ventral medial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the contralateral hand representation of the primary somatosensory area (SI) (corrected for multiple comparisons). Additionally, ALFF of VMPFC was negatively correlated with the outcomes of the emotion regulation task (corrected for multiple comparisons). We suggest that our study may reveal a novel connection between the neuroplasticity mechanism and resting state activity, which would upgrade our understanding of the central mechanism of learning. Furthermore, by showing that expertise can affect the baseline brain activity as indicated by ALFF, our findings may have profound implication for functional neuroimaging studies especially those involving expert models, in that difference in baseline brain activity may either smear the spatial pattern of activations for task data or introduce biased results into connectivity-based analysis for resting data.

PMID: 25852511 [PubMed]

Acupuncture treatment modulates the resting-state functional connectivity of brain regions in migraine patients without aura.

Thu, 04/09/2015 - 15:00

Acupuncture treatment modulates the resting-state functional connectivity of brain regions in migraine patients without aura.

Chin J Integr Med. 2015 Apr 6;

Authors: Zhang Y, Li KS, Liu HW, Fu CH, Chen S, Tan ZJ, Ren Y

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the modulatory effect of acupuncture treatment on the resting-state functional connectivity of brain regions in migraine without aura (MWoA) patients.
METHODS: Twelve MWoA patients were treated with standard acupuncture treatment for 4 weeks. All MWoA patients received resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning before and after acupuncture treatment. Another 12 normal subjects matched in age and gender were recruited to serve as healthy controls. The changes of resting-state functional connectivity in MWoA patients before and after the acupuncture treatment and those with the healthy controls were compared.
RESULTS: Before acupuncture treatment, the MWoA patients had significantly decreased functional connectivity in certain brain regions within the frontal and temporal lobe when compared with the healthy controls. After acupuncture treatment, brain regions showing decreased functional connectivity revealed significant reduction in MWoA patients compared with before acupuncture treatment.
CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture treatment could increase the functional connectivity of brain regions in the intrinsic decreased brain networks in MWoA patients. The results provided further insights into the interpretation of neural mechanisms of acupuncture treatment for migraine.

PMID: 25847772 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

In Search of Multimodal Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia.

Thu, 04/09/2015 - 15:00

In Search of Multimodal Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia.

Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Feb 24;

Authors: Sui J, Pearlson GD, Du Y, Yu Q, Jones TR, Chen J, Jiang T, Bustillo J, Calhoun VD

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia are largely resistant to current treatments and thus are a lifelong illness burden. The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) provides a reliable and valid assessment of cognition across major cognitive domains; however, the multimodal brain alterations specifically associated with MCCB in schizophrenia have not been examined.
METHODS: The interrelationships between MCCB and the abnormalities seen in three types of neuroimaging-derived maps-fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), gray matter (GM) density from structural MRI, and fractional anisotropy from diffusion MRI-were investigated by using multiset canonical correlation analysis in data from 47 schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotic medications and 50 age-matched healthy control subjects.
RESULTS: One multimodal component (canonical variant 8) was identified as both group differentiating and significantly correlated with the MCCB composite. It demonstrated 1) increased cognitive performance associated with higher fALFF (intensity of regional spontaneous brain activity) and higher GM volumes in thalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and the mid-occipital region, with co-occurring fractional anisotropy changes in superior longitudinal fascicules, anterior thalamic radiation, and forceps major; 2) higher fALFF but lower GM volume in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex related to worse cognition in schizophrenia; and 3) distinct domains of MCCB might exhibit dissociable multimodal signatures, e.g., increased fALFF in inferior parietal lobule particularly correlated with decreased social cognition. Medication dose did not relate to these findings in schizophrenia.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest linked functional and structural deficits in distributed cortico-striato-thalamic circuits may be closely related to MCCB-measured cognitive impairments in schizophrenia.

PMID: 25847180 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Intrinsic Patterns of Coupling between Correlation and Amplitude of Low-Frequency fMRI Fluctuations Are Disrupted in Degenerative Dementia Mainly due to Functional Disconnection.

Wed, 04/08/2015 - 17:00

Intrinsic Patterns of Coupling between Correlation and Amplitude of Low-Frequency fMRI Fluctuations Are Disrupted in Degenerative Dementia Mainly due to Functional Disconnection.

PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0120988

Authors: Mascali D, DiNuzzo M, Gili T, Moraschi M, Fratini M, Maraviglia B, Serra L, Bozzali M, Giove F

Abstract
Low frequency fluctuations (LFFs) of the BOLD signal are a major discovery in the study of the resting brain with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two fMRI-based measures, functional connectivity (FC), a measure of signal synchronicity, and the amplitude of LFFs (ALFF), a measure of signal periodicity, have been proved to be sensitive to changes induced by several neurological diseases, including degenerative dementia. In spite of the increasing use of these measures, whether and how they are related to each other remains to be elucidated. In this work we used voxel-wise FC and ALFF computed in different frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz; and full-band: 0.01-0.073 Hz), in order to assess their relationship in healthy elderly as well as the relevant changes induced by Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). We found that in healthy elderly subjects FC and ALFF are positively correlated in anterior and posterior cingulate cortex (full-band, slow-4 and slow-5), temporal cortex (full-band and slow-5), and in a set of subcortical regions (full-band and slow-4). These correlation patterns between FC and ALFF were absent in either AD or MCI patients. Notably, the loss of correlation between FC and ALFF in the AD group was primarily due to changes in FC rather than in ALFF. Our results indicate that degenerative dementia is characterized by a loss of global connection rather than by a decrease of fluctuation amplitude.

PMID: 25844531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Developmental changes in large-scale network connectivity in autism.

Wed, 04/08/2015 - 17:00

Developmental changes in large-scale network connectivity in autism.

Neuroimage Clin. 2015;7:732-41

Authors: Nomi JS, Uddin LQ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Disrupted cortical connectivity is thought to underlie the complex cognitive and behavior profile observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous neuroimaging research has identified patterns of both functional hypo- and hyper-connectivity in individuals with ASD. A recent theory attempting to reconcile conflicting results in the literature proposes that hyper-connectivity of brain networks may be more characteristic of young children with ASD, while hypo-connectivity may be more prevalent in adolescents and adults with the disorder when compared to typical development (TD) (Uddin etal., 2013). Previous work has examined only young children, mixed groups of children and adolescents, or adult cohorts in separate studies, leaving open the question of developmental influences on functional brain connectivity in ASD.
METHODS: The current study tests this developmental hypothesis by examining within- and between-network resting state functional connectivity in a large sample of 26 children, 28 adolescents, and 18 adults with ASD and age- and IQ-matchedTD individuals for the first time using an entirely data-driven approach. Independent component analyses (ICA) and dual regression was applied to data from three age cohorts to examine the effects of participant age on patterns of within-networkwhole-brain functional connectivity in individuals with ASD compared with TD individuals. Between-network connectivity differences were examined for each age cohort by comparing correlations between ICA components across groups.
RESULTS: We find that in the youngest cohort (age 11 and under), children with ASD exhibit hyper-connectivity within large-scale brain networks as well as decreased between-network connectivity compared with age-matchedTD children. In contrast, adolescents with ASD (age 11-18) do not differ from TD adolescents in within-network connectivity, yet show decreased between-network connectivity compared with TD adolescents. Adults with ASD show no within- or between-network differences in functional network connectivity compared with neurotypical age-matched individuals.
CONCLUSIONS: Characterizing within- and between-network functional connectivity in age-stratified cohorts of individuals with ASD and TD individuals demonstrates that functional connectivity atypicalities in the disorder are not uniform across the lifespan. These results demonstrate how explicitly characterizing participant age and adopting a developmental perspective can lead to a more nuanced understanding of atypicalities of functional brain connectivity in autism.

PMID: 25844325 [PubMed - in process]

Diffuse alterations in grey and white matter associated with cognitive impairment in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: Evidence from a multimodal approach.

Wed, 04/08/2015 - 17:00

Diffuse alterations in grey and white matter associated with cognitive impairment in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome: Evidence from a multimodal approach.

Neuroimage Clin. 2015;7:721-31

Authors: Perobelli S, Alessandrini F, Zoccatelli G, Nicolis E, Beltramello A, Assael BM, Cipolli M

Abstract
Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a rare recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in SBDS gene, at chromosome 7q11. Phenotypically, the syndrome is characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, bone marrow dysfunction, skeletal dysplasia and variable cognitive impairments. Structural brain abnormalities (smaller head circumference and decreased brain volume) have also been reported. No correlation studies between brain abnormalities and neuropsychological features have yet been performed. In this study we investigate neuroanatomical findings, neurofunctional pathways and cognitive functioning of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome subjects compared with healthy controls. To be eligible for inclusion, participants were required to have known SBDS mutations on both alleles, no history of cranial trauma or any standard contraindication to magnetic resonance imaging. Appropriate tests were used to assess cognitive functions. The static images were acquired on a 3 × 0 T magnetic resonance scanner and blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected both during the execution of the Stroop task and at rest. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess brain white matter. The Tract-based Spatial Statistics package and probabilistic tractography were used to characterize white matter pathways. Nine participants (5 males), half of all the subjects aged 9-19 years included in the Italian Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Registry, were evaluated and compared with nine healthy subjects, matched for sex and age. The patients performed less well than norms and controls on cognitive tasks (p = 0.0002). Overall, cortical thickness was greater in the patients, both in the left (+10%) and in the right (+15%) hemisphere, significantly differently increased in the temporal (left and right, p = 0.04), and right parietal (p = 0.03) lobes and in Brodmann area 44 (p = 0.04) of the right frontal lobe. The greatest increases were observed in the left limbic-anterior cingulate cortex (≥43%, p < 0.0004). Only in Broca's area in the left hemisphere did the patients show a thinner cortical thickness than that of controls (p = 0.01). Diffusion tensor imaging showed large, significant difference increases in both fractional anisotropy (+37%, p < 0.0001) and mean diffusivity (+35%, p < 0.005); the Tract-based Spatial Statistics analysis identified six abnormal clusters of white matter fibres in the fronto-callosal, right fronto-external capsulae, left fronto-parietal, right pontine, temporo-mesial and left anterior-medial-temporal regions. Brain areas activated during the Stroop task and those active during the resting state, are different, fewer and smaller in patients and correlate with worse performance (p = 0.002). Cognitive impairment in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome subjects is associated with diffuse brain anomalies in the grey matter (verbal skills with BA44 and BA20 in the right hemisphere; perceptual skills with BA5, 37, 20, 21, 42 in the left hemisphere) and white matter connectivity (verbal skills with alterations in the fronto-occipital fasciculus and with the inferior-longitudinal fasciculus; perceptual skills with the arcuate fasciculus, limbic and ponto-cerebellar fasciculus; memory skills with the arcuate fasciculus; executive functions with the anterior cingulated and arcuate fasciculus).

PMID: 25844324 [PubMed - in process]

BIL&GIN: A neuroimaging, cognitive, behavioral, and genetic database for the study of human brain lateralization.

Tue, 04/07/2015 - 17:30

BIL&GIN: A neuroimaging, cognitive, behavioral, and genetic database for the study of human brain lateralization.

Neuroimage. 2015 Mar 31;

Authors: Mazoyer B, Mellet E, Perchey G, Zago L, Crivello F, Jobard G, Delcroix N, Vigneau M, Leroux G, Petit L, Joliot M, Tzourio-Mazoyer N

Abstract
We report on a database, named BIL&GIN, designed for investigating the cognitive, behavioral, genetic, and brain morphological/functional correlates of hemispheric specialization. The database contains records from a sample of 453 adult participants enriched in left-handers (45%, N=205) as compared to the general population. For each subject, socio-demographic data, hand and eye laterality, family handedness, and cognitive abilities in the language, motor, visuo-spatial, and numerical domains have been recorded. T1-MRI and DTI data were also acquired, as well as resting-state functional MRI. Task-evoked functional MRI was performed in a sub-sample of 303 subjects (157 left-handers) using a customized functional battery of 16 cognitive tasks exploring the same three cognitive domains. Performances at the tasks executed in the magnet as well as post-acquisition debriefing were recorded. A saliva sample was obtained from the subjects of this sub-sample from which DNA was extracted. The BIL&GIN contains results of imaging data processing for each subject, namely maps of tissue (GM, WM, CSF) probability, cortical thickness, cortical surface, and diffusion parameters as well as regional values of these phenotypes for regions of both AAL and FreeSurfer parcellations. For the subjects who underwent FMRI, individual SPM contrast maps for each of the 8 runs were also calculated and included in the database, as well as corresponding BOLD variations in ROIs of the AAL and AICHA atlases, and Wilke's hemispheric functional lateralization index. The BIL&GIN data sharing is based on a collaborative model.

PMID: 25840118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Large-scale Persistent Network Reconfiguration Induced by Ketamine in Anesthetized Monkeys: Relevance to Mood Disorders.

Tue, 04/07/2015 - 17:30

Large-scale Persistent Network Reconfiguration Induced by Ketamine in Anesthetized Monkeys: Relevance to Mood Disorders.

Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Feb 27;

Authors: Lv Q, Yang L, Li G, Wang Z, Shen Z, Yu W, Jiang Q, Hou B, Pu J, Hu H, Wang Z

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Ketamine is a highly attractive candidate for developing fast-onset antidepressant agents; however, the relevant brain circuits that underlie sustained, efficacious antidepressant effects remain largely unknown.
METHODS: We used a holistic scheme combining whole-brain resting-state fMRI and graph theoretical analysis to examine the sustained effects on brain networks after administration of a single dose of ketamine and to identify the brain regions and circuits preferentially targeted by ketamine. Topological differences in functional networks of anesthetized macaque monkeys were compared between ketamine (.5 mg/kg) and saline treatment after 18 hours.
RESULTS: We observed persistent global reconfiguration of small-world properties in response to ketamine intake, accompanied by large-scale downregulation of functional connectivity, most prominently in the orbital prefrontal cortex, the subgenual and posterior cingulate cortices, and the nucleus accumbens. Intriguingly, intrinsic connectivity with the medial prefrontal areas in the reward circuits were selectively downregulated. Global and regional regulations of the brain networks precisely opposed the maladaptive alterations in the depressed brain.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that local synaptic plasticity triggered by blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors was capable of translating into prolonged network reconfiguration in the distributed cortico-limbic-striatal circuit, providing mechanistic insight into developing specific loci or circuit-targeted, long-term therapeutics.

PMID: 25837427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study.

Tue, 04/07/2015 - 17:30
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Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015;11:761-72

Authors: Dai XJ, Liu CL, Zhou RL, Gong HH, Wu B, Gao L, Wang YX

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to use resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) methods to explore intrinsic default-mode network (DMN) impairment after sleep deprivation (SD) and its relationships with clinical features.
METHODS: Twelve healthy male subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging twice: once following rested wakefulness (RW) and the other following 72 hours of total SD. Before the scans, all subjects underwent the attention network test (ANT). The independent component analysis (ICA), rsFC, and ALFF methods were used to examine intrinsic DMN impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to distinguish SD status from RW status.
RESULTS: Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed a lower accuracy rate (RW =96.83%, SD =77.67%; P<0.001), a slower reaction time (RW =695.92 ms; SD =799.18 ms; P=0.003), a higher lapse rate (RW =0.69%, SD =19.29%; P<0.001), and a higher intraindividual coefficient of variability in reaction time (RW =0.26, SD =0.33; P=0.021). The ICA method showed that, compared with RW subjects, SD subjects had decreased rsFC in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL, BA40) and in the left precuneus (PrC)/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) (BA30, 31). The two different areas were selected as regions of interest (ROIs) for future rsFC analysis. Compared with the same in RW subjects, in SD subjects, the right IPL showed decreased rsFC with the left PrC (BA7) and increased rsFC with the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) and the left cluster of middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus (BA37). However, the left PrC/PCC did not show any connectivity differences. Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed lower ALFF area in the left IPL (BA39, 40). The left IPL, as an ROI, showed decreased rsFC with the right cluster of IPL and superior temporal gyrus (BA39, 40). ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) value of the left IPL was 0.75, with a cutoff point of 0.834 (mean ALFF signal value). Further diagnostic analysis exhibited that the AUC alone discriminated SD status from RW status, with 75% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity.
CONCLUSION: Long-term SD disturbed the spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern of DMN.

PMID: 25834451 [PubMed]

A Critical Role for Purinergic Signalling in the Mechanisms Underlying Generation of BOLD fMRI Responses.

Tue, 04/07/2015 - 17:30
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A Critical Role for Purinergic Signalling in the Mechanisms Underlying Generation of BOLD fMRI Responses.

J Neurosci. 2015 Apr 1;35(13):5284-92

Authors: Wells JA, Christie IN, Hosford PS, Huckstepp RT, Angelova PR, Vihko P, Cork SC, Abramov AY, Teschemacher AG, Kasparov S, Lythgoe MF, Gourine AV

Abstract
The mechanisms of neurovascular coupling underlying generation of BOLD fMRI signals remain incompletely understood. It has been proposed that release of vasoactive substances by astrocytes couples neuronal activity to changes in cerebrovascular blood flow. However, the role of astrocytes in fMRI responses remains controversial. Astrocytes communicate via release of ATP, and here we tested the hypothesis that purinergic signaling plays a role in the mechanisms underlying fMRI. An established fMRI paradigm was used to trigger BOLD responses in the forepaw region of the somatosensory cortex (SSFP) of an anesthetized rat. Forepaw stimulation induced release of ATP in the SSFP region. To interfere with purinergic signaling by promoting rapid breakdown of the vesicular and/or released ATP, a lentiviral vector was used to express a potent ectonucleotidase, transmembrane prostatic acid phosphatase (TMPAP), in the SSFP region. TMPAP expression had no effect on resting cerebral blood flow, cerebrovascular reactivity, and neuronal responses to sensory stimulation. However, TMPAP catalytic activity markedly reduced the magnitude of BOLD fMRI responses triggered in the SSFP region by forepaw stimulation. Facilitated ATP breakdown could result in accumulation of adenosine. However, blockade of A1 receptors had no effect on BOLD responses and did not reverse the effect of TMPAP. These results suggest that purinergic signaling plays a significant role in generation of BOLD fMRI signals. We hypothesize that astrocytes activated during periods of enhanced neuronal activity release ATP, which propagates astrocytic activation, stimulates release of vasoactive substances and dilation of cerebral vasculature.

PMID: 25834053 [PubMed - in process]

Integration of multimodal neuroimaging methods: a rationale for clinical applications of simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

Fri, 04/03/2015 - 11:30

Integration of multimodal neuroimaging methods: a rationale for clinical applications of simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

Funct Neurol. 2015 Apr 1;:1-12

Authors: Vitali P, Di Ferri C, Vaudano AE, Meletti S, Villani F

Abstract
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which has high spatial resolution, is increasingly used to evaluate cerebral functions in neurological and psychiatric diseases. The main limitation of fMRI is that it detects neural activity indirectly, through the associated slow hemodynamic variations. Because neurovascular coupling can be regionally altered by pathological conditions or drugs, fMRI responses may not truly reflect neural activity. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, which directly detect neural activity with optimal temporal resolution, can now be obtained during fMRI data acquisition. Therefore, there is a growing interest in combining the techniques to obtain simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings. The EEG-fMRI approach has several promising clinical applications. The first is the detection of cortical areas involved in interictal and ictal epileptic activity. Second, combining evoked potentials with fMRI could be an accurate way to study eloquent cortical areas for the planning of neurosurgery or rehabilitation, circumventing the above-mentioned limitation of fMRI. Finally, the use of this approach to evaluate the functional connectivity of resting-state networks would extend the applications of EEG-fMRI to uncooperative or unconscious patients. Integration of multimodal neuroimaging methods: a rationale for clinical applications of simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

PMID: 25827588 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Functional connectivity in multiple cortical networks is associated with performance across cognitive domains in older adults.

Fri, 04/03/2015 - 11:30

Functional connectivity in multiple cortical networks is associated with performance across cognitive domains in older adults.

Brain Connect. 2015 Apr 1;

Authors: Shaw EE, Schultz AP, Sperling R, Hedden T

Abstract
Intrinsic functional connectivity MRI has become a widely-used tool for measuring integrity in large-scale cortical networks. This study examined multiple cortical networks using Template-Based Rotation (TBR), a method that applies a priori network and nuisance component templates defined from an independent dataset to test datasets of interest. A priori templates were applied to a test dataset of 276 older adults (ages 65-90) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study to examine the relationship between multiple large-scale cortical networks and cognition. Factor scores derived from neuropsychological tests represented processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Resting-state BOLD data were acquired in two six-minute acquisitions on a 3-Telsa scanner and processed with TBR to extract individual-level metrics of network connectivity in multiple cortical networks. All results controlled for data quality metrics including motion. Connectivity in multiple large-scale cortical networks was positively related to all cognitive domains, with a composite measure of general connectivity positively associated with general cognitive performance. Controlling for the correlations between networks, the fronto-parietal control network and executive function demonstrated the only significant association, suggesting specificity in this relationship. Further analyses found that the fronto-parietal control network mediated the relationships of the other networks with cognition, suggesting that this network may play a central role in understanding individual variation in cognition during aging.

PMID: 25827242 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]