Most recent paper

Syndicate content NCBI pubmed
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term="resting"[All Fields] AND "fMRI"[All Fields]
Updated: 1 hour 19 min ago

Altered intra- and inter-regional synchronization of superior temporal cortex in deaf people.

Sat, 03/01/2014 - 16:00
Related Articles

Altered intra- and inter-regional synchronization of superior temporal cortex in deaf people.

Cereb Cortex. 2013 Aug;23(8):1988-96

Authors: Li Y, Booth JR, Peng D, Zang Y, Li J, Yan C, Ding G

Abstract
Functional organization of the brain can be fundamentally altered by auditory deprivation. Previous studies found that the superior temporal cortex in deaf people is reorganized to process non-auditory stimuli, as revealed by the extrinsic task-induced brain activities. However, it is unknown how the intrinsic activities of this region are impacted by deafness. This study explored this issue using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We examined 60 congenitally deaf (CD) individuals, 39 acquired deaf (AD) individuals, and 38 hearing controls (HC), and focused on the effect of deafness on the intra- and inter-regional synchronization of different parts of superior temporal sulcus (STS). We found that intra-regional synchronization or regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the middle STS (mSTS) was decreased in AD compared with HC or CD, while the CD had preserved ReHo in mSTS. Greater connectivity was observed between mSTS and posterior STS in CD and HC than in AD, while both CD and AD had weaker connectivity of mSTS with the anterior STS (aSTS) compared with HC. Moreover, the connectivity of mSTS-aSTS in CD and AD was associated with their language skills. These findings confirmed our hypothesis that the intrinsic function of different parts of STS is distinctly impacted by deafness.

PMID: 22767633 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Altered functional connectivity of the language network in ASD: Role of classical language areas and cerebellum.

Thu, 02/27/2014 - 13:30

Altered functional connectivity of the language network in ASD: Role of classical language areas and cerebellum.

Neuroimage Clin. 2014;4:374-82

Authors: Verly M, Verhoeven J, Zink I, Mantini D, Peeters R, Deprez S, Emsell L, Boets B, Noens I, Steyaert J, Lagae L, De Cock P, Rommel N, Sunaert S

Abstract
The development of language, social interaction and communicative skills is remarkably different in the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Atypical brain connectivity has frequently been reported in this patient population. However, the neural correlates underlying their disrupted language development and functioning are still poorly understood. Using resting state fMRI, we investigated the functional connectivity properties of the language network in a group of ASD patients with clear comorbid language impairment (ASD-LI; N = 19) and compared them to the language related connectivity properties of 23 age-matched typically developing children. A verb generation task was used to determine language components commonly active in both groups. Eight joint language components were identified and subsequently used as seeds in a resting state analysis. Interestingly, both the interregional and the seed-based whole brain connectivity analysis showed preserved connectivity between the classical intrahemispheric language centers, Wernicke's and Broca's areas. In contrast however, a marked loss of functional connectivity was found between the right cerebellar region and the supratentorial regulatory language areas. Also, the connectivity between the interhemispheric Broca regions and modulatory control dorsolateral prefrontal region was found to be decreased. This disruption of normal modulatory control and automation function by the cerebellum may underlie the abnormal language function in children with ASD-LI.

PMID: 24567909 [PubMed]

Functisonal Organization of Intrinsic Connectivity Networks in Chinese-chess Experts.

Thu, 02/27/2014 - 13:30

Functisonal Organization of Intrinsic Connectivity Networks in Chinese-chess Experts.

Brain Res. 2014 Feb 21;

Authors: Duan X, Long Z, Chen H, Liang D, Qiu L, Huang X, Liu TC, Gong Q

Abstract
The functional architecture of the human brain has been extensively described in terms of functional connectivity networks, detected from the low-frequency coherent neuronal fluctuations during a resting state condition. Accumulating evidence suggests that the overall organization of functional connectivity networks is associated with individual differences in cognitive performance and prior experience. Such an association raises the question of how cognitive expertise exerts an influence on the topological properties of large-scale functional networks. To address this question, we examined the overall organization of brain functional networks in twenty grandmaster and master level Chinese-chess players (GM/M) and twenty novice players, by means of resting-state functional connectivity and graph theoretical analyses. We found that, relative to novices, functional connectivity was increased in GM/Ms between basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, and several parietal and temporal areas, suggesting the influence of cognitive expertise on intrinsic connectivity networks associated with learning and memory. Furthermore, we observed economical small-world topology in the whole-brain functional connectivity networks in both groups, but GM/Ms exhibited significantly increased values of normalized clustering coefficient which resulted in increased small-world topology. These findings suggest an association between the functional organization of brain networks and individual differences in cognitive expertise, which might provide further evidence of the mechanisms underlying expert behavior.

PMID: 24565926 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Functional Brain Connectivity Using fMRI in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease.

Wed, 02/26/2014 - 18:00

Functional Brain Connectivity Using fMRI in Aging and Alzheimer's Disease.

Neuropsychol Rev. 2014 Feb 23;

Authors: Dennis EL, Thompson PM

Abstract
Normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) cause profound changes in the brain's structure and function. AD in particular is accompanied by widespread cortical neuronal loss, and loss of connections between brain systems. This degeneration of neural pathways disrupts the functional coherence of brain activation. Recent innovations in brain imaging have detected characteristic disruptions in functional networks. Here we review studies examining changes in functional connectivity, measured through fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), starting with healthy aging and then Alzheimer's disease. We cover studies that employ the three primary methods to analyze functional connectivity-seed-based, ICA (independent components analysis), and graph theory. At the end we include a brief discussion of other methodologies, such as EEG (electroencephalography), MEG (magnetoencephalography), and PET (positron emission tomography). We also describe multi-modal studies that combine rsfMRI (resting state fMRI) with PET imaging, as well as studies examining the effects of medications. Overall, connectivity and network integrity appear to decrease in healthy aging, but this decrease is accelerated in AD, with specific systems hit hardest, such as the default mode network (DMN). Functional connectivity is a relatively new topic of research, but it holds great promise in revealing how brain network dynamics change across the lifespan and in disease.

PMID: 24562737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in hepatic encephalopathy: current status and perspectives.

Wed, 02/26/2014 - 18:00

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in hepatic encephalopathy: current status and perspectives.

Metab Brain Dis. 2014 Feb 22;

Authors: Zhang LJ, Wu S, Ren J, Lu GM

Abstract
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome which develops in patients with severe liver diseases and/or portal-systemic shunting. Minimal HE, the earliest manifestation of HE, has drawn increasing attention in the last decade. Minimal HE is associated with a series of brain functional changes, such as attention, working memory, and so on. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI), especially resting-state fMRI has been used to explore the brain functional changes of HE, yielding important insights for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms and functional reorganization of HE. This paper briefly reviews the principles of BOLD fMRI, potential applications of resting-state fMRI with advanced post-processing algorithms such as regional homogeneity, amplitude of low frequency fluctuation, functional connectivity and future research perspective in this field.

PMID: 24562590 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting-State fMRI: A Window into Human Brain Plasticity.

Wed, 02/26/2014 - 18:00

Resting-State fMRI: A Window into Human Brain Plasticity.

Neuroscientist. 2014 Feb 21;

Authors: Guerra-Carrillo B, Mackey AP, Bunge SA

Abstract
Although brain plasticity is greatest in the first few years of life, the brain continues to be shaped by experience throughout adulthood. Advances in fMRI have enabled us to examine the plasticity of large-scale networks using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) correlations measured at rest. Resting-state functional connectivity analysis makes it possible to measure task-independent changes in brain function and therefore could provide unique insights into experience-dependent brain plasticity in humans. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that resting-state functional connectivity reflects the repeated history of co-activation between brain regions. To this end, we review resting-state fMRI studies in the sensory, motor, and cognitive learning literature. This body of research provides evidence that the brain's resting-state functional architecture displays dynamic properties in young adulthood.

PMID: 24561514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Common Intrinsic Connectivity States Among Posteromedial Cortex Subdivisions: Insights From Analysis of Temporal Dynamics.

Wed, 02/26/2014 - 18:00

Common Intrinsic Connectivity States Among Posteromedial Cortex Subdivisions: Insights From Analysis of Temporal Dynamics.

Neuroimage. 2014 Feb 19;

Authors: Yang Z, Craddock RC, Margulies D, Yan CG, Milham MP

Abstract
Perspectives of human brain functional connectivity continue to evolve. Static representations of functional interactions between brain regions are rapidly giving way to dynamic perspectives, which emphasizes non-random temporal variations in intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) patterns. Here, we bring this dynamic perspective to our understanding of iFC patterns for posteromedial cortex (PMC), a cortical hub known for its functional diversity. Previous work has consistently differentiated iFC patterns among PMC subregions, though assumed static iFC over time. Here, we assessed iFC as a function of time utilizing a sliding-window correlation approach, and applied hierarchical clustering to detect representative iFC states from the windowed iFC. Across subregions, five iFC states were detected over time. Although with differing frequencies, each subregion was associated with each of the states, suggesting that these iFC states are "common" to PMC subregions. Importantly, each subregion possessed a unique preferred state(s) and distinct transition patterns, explaining previously observed iFC differentiations. These results resonate with task-based fMRI studies suggesting that large-scale functional networks can be flexibly reconfigured in response to changing task-demands. Additionally, we used retest scans (~1 week later) to demonstrate the reproducibility of the iFC states identified, and establish moderate to high test-retest reliability for various metrics used to quantify switching behaviors. We also demonstrate the ability of dynamic properties in the visual PMC subregion to index inter-individual differences in a measure of concept formation and mental flexibility. These findings suggest functional relevance of dynamic iFC and its potential utility in biomarker identification over time, as d-iFC methodologies are refined and mature.

PMID: 24560717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Long-duration transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation alters small-world brain functional networks.

Tue, 02/25/2014 - 16:30
Related Articles

Long-duration transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation alters small-world brain functional networks.

Magn Reson Imaging. 2013 Sep;31(7):1105-11

Authors: Zhang Y, Jiang Y, Glielmi CB, Li L, Hu X, Wang X, Han J, Zhang J, Cui C, Fang J

Abstract
Acupuncture, which is recognized as an alternative and complementary treatment in Western medicine, has long shown efficiencies in chronic pain relief, drug addiction treatment, stroke rehabilitation and other clinical practices. The neural mechanism underlying acupuncture, however, is still unclear. Many studies have focused on the sustained effects of acupuncture on healthy subjects, yet there are very few on the topological organization of functional networks in the whole brain in response to long-duration acupuncture (longer than 20 min). This paper presents a novel study on the effects of long-duration transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on the small-world properties of brain functional networks. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to construct brain functional networks of 18 healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) during the resting state. All subjects received both TEAS and minimal TEAS (MTEAS) and were scanned before and after each stimulation. An altered functional network was found with lower local efficiency and no significant change in global efficiency for healthy subjects after TEAS, while no significant difference was observed after MTEAS. The experiments also showed that the nodal efficiencies in several paralimbic/limbic regions were altered by TEAS, and those in middle frontal gyrus and other regions by MTEAS. To remove the psychological effects and the baseline, we compared the difference between diffTEAS (difference between after and before TEAS) and diffMTEAS (difference between after and before MTEAS). The results showed that the local efficiency was decreased and that the nodal efficiencies in frontal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus and hippocampus gyrus were changed. Based on those observations, we conclude that long-duration TEAS may modulate the short-range connections of brain functional networks and also the limbic system.

PMID: 23684242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Association between Resting-State Coactivation in the Parieto-Frontal Network and Intelligence during Late Childhood and Adolescence.

Sat, 02/22/2014 - 19:00

Association between Resting-State Coactivation in the Parieto-Frontal Network and Intelligence during Late Childhood and Adolescence.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Feb 20;

Authors: Li C, Tian L

Abstract
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A number of studies have associated the adult intelligence quotient with the structure and function of the bilateral parieto-frontal networks, whereas the relationship between intelligence quotient and parieto-frontal network function has been found to be relatively weak in early childhood. Because both human intelligence and brain function undergo protracted development into adulthood, the purpose of the present study was to provide a better understanding of the development of the parieto-frontal network-intelligence quotient relationship.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed independent component analysis of resting-state fMRI data of 84 children and 50 adolescents separately and then correlated full-scale intelligence quotient with the spatial maps of the bilateral parieto-frontal networks of each group.
RESULTS: In children, significant positive spatial-map versus intelligence quotient correlations were detected in the right angular gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus in the right parieto-frontal network, and no significant correlation was observed in the left parieto-frontal network. In adolescents, significant positive correlation was detected in the left inferior frontal gyrus in the left parieto-frontal network, and the correlations in the frontal pole in the 2 parieto-frontal networks were only marginally significant.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings not only support the critical role of the parieto-frontal networks for intelligence but indicate that the relationship between intelligence quotient and the parieto-frontal network in the right hemisphere has been well established in late childhood, and that the relationship in the left hemisphere was also established in adolescence.

PMID: 24557703 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A genetically informed, group FMRI connectivity modeling approach: application to schizophrenia.

Sat, 02/22/2014 - 19:00

A genetically informed, group FMRI connectivity modeling approach: application to schizophrenia.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2014 Mar;61(3):946-56

Authors: Liu A, Chen X, Wang ZJ, Xu Q, Appel-Cresswell S, McKeown MJ

Abstract
While neuroimaging data can provide valuable phenotypic information to inform genetic studies, the opposite is also true: known genotypes can be used to inform brain connectivity patterns from fMRI data. Here, we propose a framework for genetically informed group brain connectivity modeling. Subjects are first stratified according to their genotypes, and then a group regularized regression model is employed for brain connectivity modeling utilizing the time courses from a priori specified regions of interest (ROIs). With such an approach, each ROI time course is in turn predicted from all other ROI time courses at zero lag using a group regression framework which also incorporates a penalty based on genotypic similarity. Simulations supported such an approach when, as previously studies have indicated to be the case, genetic influences impart connectivity differences across subjects. The proposed method was applied to resting state fMRI data from Schizophrenia and normal control subjects. Genotypes were based on D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) information. With DAOA SNPs information integrated, the proposed approach was able to more accurately model the diversity in connectivity patterns. Specifically, connectivity with the left putamen, right posterior cingulate, and left middle frontal gyri were found to be jointly modulated by DAOA genotypes and the presence of Schizophrenia. We conclude that the proposed framework represents a multimodal analysis approach for incorporating genotypic variability into brain connectivity analysis directly.

PMID: 24557696 [PubMed - in process]

Associations between interhemispheric functional connectivity and the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) in civilian mild TBI.

Sat, 02/22/2014 - 19:00

Associations between interhemispheric functional connectivity and the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) in civilian mild TBI.

Brain Imaging Behav. 2014 Feb 21;

Authors: Sours C, Rosenberg J, Kane R, Roys S, Zhuo J, Shanmuganathan K, Gullapalli RP

Abstract
This study investigates cognitive deficits and alterations in resting state functional connectivity in civilian mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) participants with high and low symptoms. Forty-one mTBI participants completed a resting state fMRI scan and the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) during initial testing (<10 days of injury) and a 1 month follow up. Data were compared to 30 healthy control subjects. Results from the ANAM demonstrate that mTBI participants performed significantly worse than controls on the code substitution delayed subtest (p = 0.032) and weighted throughput score (p = 0.001). Among the mTBI patients, high symptom mTBI participants performed worse than those with low symptoms on the code substitution delayed (p = 0.017), code substitution (p = 0.012), repeated simple reaction time (p = 0.031), and weighted throughput score (p = 0.009). Imaging results reveal that during the initial visit, low symptom mTBI participants had reduced interhemispheric functional connectivity (IH-FC) within the lateral parietal lobe (p = 0.020); however, during follow up, high symptom mTBI participants showed reduced IH-FC compared to the control group within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (p = 0.013). Reduced IH-FC within the DLPFC during the follow-up was associated with reduced cognitive performance. Together, these findings suggest that reduced rs-FC may contribute to the subtle cognitive deficits noted in high symptom mTBI participants compared to control subjects and low symptom mTBI participants.

PMID: 24557591 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Functional connectivity alternation of the thalamus in restless legs syndrome patients during the asymptomatic period: a resting-state connectivity study using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Sat, 02/22/2014 - 19:00

Functional connectivity alternation of the thalamus in restless legs syndrome patients during the asymptomatic period: a resting-state connectivity study using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Sleep Med. 2014 Jan 30;

Authors: Ku J, Cho YW, Lee YS, Moon HJ, Chang H, Earley CJ, Allen RP

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a primary sensory disorder with a secondary motor component (e.g., urge to move), and the thalamus is known to play a central role in RLS. The purpose of our study was to explore the intrinsic changes in the thalamocortical circuit in RLS patients using a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm.
METHODS: Resting-state fMRIs were obtained in the morning from 25 idiopathic RLS patients who were not using RLS medications and 25 controls. Resting-state connectivity was analyzed by a seed-based method using Analysis of Functional NeuroImages (AFNI) software with the bilateral thalami (ventroposterolateral nucleus [VPLN]). The connectivity characteristics of RLS patients were compared to those of the controls.
RESULTS: We found that RLS patients showed reduced thalamic connectivity with the right parahippocampal gyrus, right precuneus, right precentral gyrus, and bilateral lingual gyri; however, the right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus, and right medial frontal gyrus showed enhanced connectivity with the thalamus. RLS severity was negatively correlated with connectivity between the thalamus and right parahippocampal gyrus (r=-0.414; P=.040).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the characteristics of the connectivity changes may reflect the pathways involved in producing RLS symptoms and indicate that RLS patients may have deficits in controlling and managing sensory information, which supports the act of viewing RLS as a disorder disrupting somatosensory processing.

PMID: 24555993 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Neurofunctional correlates of attention rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease: an explorative study.

Sat, 02/22/2014 - 12:30

Neurofunctional correlates of attention rehabilitation in Parkinson's disease: an explorative study.

Neurol Sci. 2014 Feb 20;

Authors: Cerasa A, Gioia MC, Salsone M, Donzuso G, Chiriaco C, Realmuto S, Nicoletti A, Bellavia G, Banco A, D'amelio M, Zappia M, Quattrone A

Abstract
The effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation (CR) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is in its relative infancy, and nowadays there is insufficient information to support evidence-based clinical protocols. This study is aimed at testing a validated therapeutic strategy characterized by intensive computer-based attention-training program tailored to attention deficits. We further investigated the presence of synaptic plasticity by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using a randomized controlled study, we enrolled eight PD patients who underwent a CR program (Experimental group) and seven clinically/demographically-matched PD patients who underwent a placebo intervention (Control group). Brain activity was assessed using an 8-min resting state (RS) fMRI acquisition. Independent component analysis and statistical parametric mapping were used to assess the effect of CR on brain function. Significant effects were detected both at a phenotypic and at an intermediate phenotypic level. After CR, the Experimental group, in comparison with the Control group, showed a specific enhanced performance in cognitive performance as assessed by the SDMT and digit span forward. RS fMRI analysis for all networks revealed two significant groups (Experimental vs Control) × time (T0 vs T1) interaction effects on the analysis of the attention (superior parietal cortex) and central executive neural networks (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). We demonstrated that intensive CR tailored for the impaired abilities impacts neural plasticity and improves some aspects of cognitive deficits of PD patients. The reported neurophysiological and behavioural effects corroborate the benefits of our therapeutic approach, which might have a reliable application in clinical management of cognitive deficits.

PMID: 24554416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Aberrant interhemispheric functional coordination in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

Sat, 02/22/2014 - 12:30

Aberrant interhemispheric functional coordination in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

Metab Brain Dis. 2014 Feb 20;

Authors: Chen HJ, Wang Y, Yang M, Zhu XQ, Teng GJ

Abstract
Aberrant brain functional connectivity has been considered as the important mechanism underlying minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE); however, little is known about the change in interhemispheric connection in MHE patients. Twenty patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and MHE and 15 healthy controls were included in this study and underwent the resting-state fMRI scanning and diffusion tensor imaging. The functional connectivity between symmetric interhemispheric voxels was computed by a technique called voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC), in which the time series for each voxel in one hemisphere was correlated with that of its homotopic voxel. Diffusion tensor imaging was conducted to measure the mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values in corpus callosum (CC). Compared with controls, MHE patients showed decreased regional VMHC in medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gryus, anterior cingulate gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, postcentral gyrus, lingual gyrus, and middle occipital gyrus. MHE patients had significant decreased FA value in CC genu and CC splenium and increased MD value in CC genu. Pearson correlation analyses showed that the VMHC in anterior cingulate gyrus/medial frontal gyrus was correlated with FA/MD values of CC genu. These findings may suggest aberrant interhemispheric coordination in MHE and may provide new insight into the disease-related mechanisms.

PMID: 24553880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

SINGULAR SPECTRUM ANALYSIS AND ADAPTIVE FILTERING ENHANCE THE FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY ANALYSIS OF RESTING STATE fMRI DATA.

Sat, 02/22/2014 - 12:30

SINGULAR SPECTRUM ANALYSIS AND ADAPTIVE FILTERING ENHANCE THE FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY ANALYSIS OF RESTING STATE fMRI DATA.

Int J Neural Syst. 2014 May;24(3):1450010

Authors: Piaggi P, Menicucci D, Gentili C, Handjaras G, Gemignani A, Landi A

Abstract
Sources of noise in resting-state fMRI experiments include instrumental and physiological noises, which need to be filtered before a functional connectivity analysis of brain regions is performed. These noisy components show autocorrelated and nonstationary properties that limit the efficacy of standard techniques (i.e. time filtering and general linear model). Herein we describe a novel approach based on the combination of singular spectrum analysis and adaptive filtering, which allows a greater noise reduction and yields better connectivity estimates between regions at rest, providing a new feasible procedure to analyze fMRI data.

PMID: 24552511 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Assessment of unconstrained cerebrovascular reactivity marker for large age-range FMRI studies.

Fri, 02/21/2014 - 18:00

Assessment of unconstrained cerebrovascular reactivity marker for large age-range FMRI studies.

PLoS One. 2014;9(2):e88751

Authors: Kannurpatti SS, Motes MA, Biswal BB, Rypma B

Abstract
Breath hold (BH), a commonly used task to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) in fMRI studies varies in outcome among individuals due to subject-physiology and/or BH-inspiration/expiration differences (i.e., performance). In prior age-related fMRI studies, smaller task-related BOLD response variability is observed among younger than older individuals. Also, a linear CVR versus task relationship exists in younger individuals which maybe useful to test the accuracy of CVR responses in older groups. Hence we hypothesized that subject-related physiological and/or BH differences, if present, may compromise CVR versus task linearity in older individuals. To test the hypothesis, empirical BH versus task relationships from motor and cognitive areas were obtained in younger (mean age = 26 years) and older (mean age = 58 years) human subjects. BH versus task linearity was observed only in the younger group, confirming our hypothesis. Further analysis indicated BH responses and its variability to be similar in both younger and older groups, suggesting that BH may not accurately represent CVR in a large age range. Using the resting state fluctuation of amplitude (RSFA) as an unconstrained alternative to BH, subject-wise correspondence between BH and RSFA was tested. Correlation between BH versus RSFA was significant within the motor but was not significant in the cognitive areas in the younger and was completely disrupted in both areas in the older subjects indicating that BH responses are constrained by subject-related physiology and/or performance-related differences. Contrasting BH to task, RSFA-task relationships were independent of age accompanied by age-related increases in CVR variability as measured by RSFA, not observed with BH. Together the results obtained indicate that RSFA accurately represents CVR in any age range avoiding multiple and yet unknown physiologic and task-related pitfalls of BH.

PMID: 24551151 [PubMed - in process]

The effect of mild-to-moderate hearing loss on auditory and emotion processing networks.

Fri, 02/21/2014 - 18:00

The effect of mild-to-moderate hearing loss on auditory and emotion processing networks.

Front Syst Neurosci. 2014;8:10

Authors: Husain FT, Carpenter-Thompson JR, Schmidt SA

Abstract
We investigated the impact of hearing loss (HL) on emotional processing using task- and rest-based functional magnetic resonance imaging. Two age-matched groups of middle-aged participants were recruited: one with bilateral high-frequency HL and a control group with normal hearing (NH). During the task-based portion of the experiment, participants were instructed to rate affective stimuli from the International Affective Digital Sounds (IADS) database as pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral. In the resting state experiment, participants were told to fixate on a "+" sign on a screen for 5 min. The results of both the task-based and resting state studies suggest that NH and HL patients differ in their emotional response. Specifically, in the task-based study, we found slower response to affective but not neutral sounds by the HL group compared to the NH group. This was reflected in the brain activation patterns, with the NH group employing the expected limbic and auditory regions including the left amygdala, left parahippocampus, right middle temporal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus to a greater extent in processing affective stimuli when compared to the HL group. In the resting state study, we observed no significant differences in connectivity of the auditory network between the groups. In the dorsal attention network (DAN), HL patients exhibited decreased connectivity between seed regions and left insula and left postcentral gyrus compared to controls. The default mode network (DMN) was also altered, showing increased connectivity between seeds and left middle frontal gyrus in the HL group. Further targeted analysis revealed increased intrinsic connectivity between the right middle temporal gyrus and the right precentral gyrus. The results from both studies suggest neuronal reorganization as a consequence of HL, most notably in networks responding to emotional sounds.

PMID: 24550791 [PubMed]

Decomposition of spontaneous brain activity into distinct fMRI co-activation patterns.

Fri, 02/21/2014 - 18:00

Decomposition of spontaneous brain activity into distinct fMRI co-activation patterns.

Front Syst Neurosci. 2013;7:101

Authors: Liu X, Chang C, Duyn JH

Abstract
Recent fMRI studies have shown that analysis of the human brain's spontaneous activity may provide a powerful approach to reveal its functional organization. Dedicated methods have been proposed to investigate co-variation of signals from different brain regions, with the goal of revealing neuronal networks (NNs) that may serve specialized functions. However, these analysis methods generally do not take into account a potential non-stationary (variable) interaction between brain regions, and as a result have limited effectiveness. To address this, we propose a novel analysis method that uses clustering analysis to sort and selectively average fMRI activity time frames to produce a set of co-activation patterns. Compared to the established networks extracted with conventional analysis methods, these co-activation patterns demonstrate novel network features with apparent relevance to the brain's functional organization.

PMID: 24550788 [PubMed]

[Study of resting state functional connectivity of the red nucleus and substantia nigra were in normal adult].

Fri, 02/21/2014 - 18:00

[Study of resting state functional connectivity of the red nucleus and substantia nigra were in normal adult].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013 Dec 17;93(47):3758-61

Authors: Wang N, Wu JT, Chen WX, Xu Y, Ye J, Yin YL, Zhang HY

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To detect the functional networks of the red nucleus and substantia nigra duing the resting state in normal subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
METHODS: Sixteen normal subjects were performed resting state fMRI scanning and susceptibility weighted imaging. The function connectivity networks base on seed regions of the red nucleus and substantia nigra were extracted from low frequency fluctuation signal in fMRI data by using a temporal correlation method. Individual functional maps were entered two-tailed one-sample t test to determine brain regions with significant positive correlation to the seeds. The statistic threshold was set at P < 0.001, cluster size>42 (336 mm(3)), cluster connectivity criterion 5 rmm with Alphasim correction.
RESULTS: Brain regions involved in the functional connectivity network of the red nucleus include: dorsal anterior cingutate, supramarginal gyrus, the ventrolateral and the ventromedial nucleus of the thalamus, globus pallidus, dorsal thalamus, hippocampus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, pons, dentate nucleus, vermis; Brain regions involved in the functional connectivity network of the substantia nigra include: anterior cingutate, supramarginal gyrus, globus pallidus, dorsal thalamus, hippocampus, lobus insularis, substantia nigra, red nucleus, pons, dentate nucleus. The distribution of thhe networks of the red nucleus and substantia nigra presented symmetrical. Although the functional networks of the red nucleus and substantia nigra overlaped largely with each other, the rubral network was slightly different with the nigral network, witch showed strong correlations with more wide-spread striatum and thalamus areas.
CONCLUSION: The functional networks of the red nucleus and substantia nigra reflected strong interplay within the extrapyramidal subcortical system, as well as correlations between some limited cerebral cortices; Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a potential powerful tool to explore the extrapyramidal system.

PMID: 24548392 [PubMed - in process]

Amygdala-cingulate intrinsic connectivity is associated with degree of social inhibition.

Thu, 02/20/2014 - 16:30

Amygdala-cingulate intrinsic connectivity is associated with degree of social inhibition.

Biol Psychol. 2014 Feb 14;

Authors: Blackford JU, Clauss JA, Avery SN, Cowan RL, Benningfield MM, Vanderklok RM

Abstract
The tendency to approach or avoid novel people is a fundamental human behavior and is a core dimension of social anxiety. Resting state fMRI was used to test for an association between social inhibition and intrinsic connectivity in 40 young adults ranging from low to high in social inhibition. Higher levels of social inhibition were associated with specific patterns of reduced amygdala-cingulate cortex connectivity. Connectivity was reduced between the superficial amygdala and the rostral cingulate cortex and between the centromedial amygdala and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Social inhibition also modulated connectivity in several well-established intrinsic networks; higher social inhibition correlated with reduced connectivity with default mode and dorsal attention networks and enhanced connectivity in salience and executive control networks. These findings provide important preliminary evidence that social inhibition reflects differences in the underlying intrinsic connectivity of the brain in the absence of social stimuli or stressors.

PMID: 24534162 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]