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Cognitive impairment and resting-state network connectivity in Parkinson's disease.

Sat, 08/30/2014 - 17:30

Cognitive impairment and resting-state network connectivity in Parkinson's disease.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2014 Aug 28;

Authors: Baggio HC, Segura B, Sala-Llonch R, Marti MJ, Valldeoriola F, Compta Y, Tolosa E, Junqué C

Abstract
The purpose of this work was to evaluate changes in the connectivity patterns of a set of cognitively relevant, dynamically interrelated brain networks in association with cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) using resting-state functional MRI. Sixty-five nondemented PD patients and 36 matched healthy controls were included. Thirty-four percent of PD patients were classified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) based on performance in attention/executive, visuospatial/visuoperceptual (VS/VP) and memory functions. A data-driven approach using independent component analysis (ICA) was used to identify the default-mode network (DMN), the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the bilateral frontoparietal networks (FPN), which were compared between groups using a dual-regression approach controlling for gray matter atrophy. Additional seed-based analyses using a priori defined regions of interest were used to characterize local changes in intranetwork and internetwork connectivity. Structural group comparisons through voxel-based morphometry and cortical thickness were additionally performed to assess associated gray matter atrophy. ICA results revealed reduced connectivity between the DAN and right frontoinsular regions in MCI patients, associated with worse performance in attention/executive functions. The DMN displayed increased connectivity with medial and lateral occipito-parietal regions in MCI patients, associated with worse VS/VP performance, and with occipital reductions in cortical thickness. In line with data-driven results, seed-based analyses mainly revealed reduced within-DAN, within-DMN and DAN-FPN connectivity, as well as loss of normal DAN-DMN anticorrelation in MCI patients. Our findings demonstrate differential connectivity changes affecting the networks evaluated, which we hypothesize to be related to the pathophysiological bases of different types of cognitive impairment in PD. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID: 25164875 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Behavioral relevance of the dynamics of functional brain connectome.

Sat, 08/30/2014 - 17:30

Behavioral relevance of the dynamics of functional brain connectome.

Brain Connect. 2014 Aug 27;

Authors: Jia H, Hu X, Deshpande G

Abstract
While many previous studies assumed the functional connectivity (FC) between brain regions to be stationary, recent studies have demonstrated that FC dynamically varies across time. However, two challenges have limited the interpretability of dynamic FC information. First, a principled framework for selecting the temporal extent of the window used to examine the dynamics is lacking and this has resulted in ad-hoc selections of window lengths and subsequent divergent results. Second, it is unclear whether there is any behavioral relevance to the dynamics of the functional connectome in addition to that obtained from conventional static FC. In this work, we address these challenges by first proposing a principled framework for selecting the extent of the temporal windows in a dynamic and data-driven fashion based on statistical tests of the stationarity of time series. Further, we propose a method involving three levels of clustering - across space, time and subjects - which allow for group-level inferences of the dynamics. Next, using a large resting state fMRI and behavioral dataset from the Human Connectome Project, we demonstrate that metrics derived from dynamic FC can explain more than twice the variance in 75 behaviors across different domains (alertness, cognition, emotion and personality traits) as compared to static FC in healthy individuals. Further, we found that individuals with brain networks exhibiting greater dynamics performed more favorably in behavioral tasks. This indicates that the ease with which brain regions engage or disengage may provide potential biomarkers for disorders involving altered neural circuitry.

PMID: 25163490 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

An eight month randomized controlled exercise intervention alters resting state synchrony in overweight children.

Sat, 08/30/2014 - 17:30
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An eight month randomized controlled exercise intervention alters resting state synchrony in overweight children.

Neuroscience. 2014 Jan 3;256:445-55

Authors: Krafft CE, Pierce JE, Schwarz NF, Chi L, Weinberger AL, Schaeffer DJ, Rodrigue AL, Camchong J, Allison JD, Yanasak NE, Liu T, Davis CL, McDowell JE

Abstract
Children with low aerobic fitness have altered brain function compared to higher-fit children. This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on resting state synchrony. Twenty-two sedentary, overweight (body mass index ≥85th percentile) children 8-11 years old were randomly assigned to one of two after-school programs: aerobic exercise (n=13) or sedentary attention control (n=9). Before and after the 8-month programs, all subjects participated in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Independent components analysis identified several networks, with four chosen for between-group analysis: salience, default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks. The default mode, cognitive control, and motor networks showed more spatial refinement over time in the exercise group compared to controls. The motor network showed increased synchrony in the exercise group with the right medial frontal gyrus compared to controls. Exercise behavior may enhance brain development in children.

PMID: 24096138 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Functional brain-imaging correlates of negative affectivity and the onset of first-episode depression.

Fri, 08/29/2014 - 15:30

Functional brain-imaging correlates of negative affectivity and the onset of first-episode depression.

Psychol Med. 2014 Aug 27;:1-9

Authors: Davey CG, Whittle S, Harrison BJ, Simmons JG, Byrne ML, Schwartz OS, Allen NB

Abstract
Background. The amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC) are key brain regions for the generation of negative affect. In this longitudinal fMRI study of adolescents we investigated how amygdala-sACC connectivity was correlated with negative affectivity (NA) both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, and examined its relationship to the onset of first-episode depression. Method. Fifty-six adolescents who were part of a larger longitudinal study of adolescent development were included. They had no history of mental illness at the time of their baseline scan (mean age 16.5 years) and had a follow-up scan 2 years later (mean age 18.8 years). We used resting-state functional-connectivity MRI to investigate whether cross-sectional and change measures of amygdala-sACC connectivity were (i) correlated with NA and its change over time, and (ii) related to the onset of first-episode depression. Results. The magnitude of amygdala connectivity with sACC showed significant positive correlation with NA at both time-points. Further analysis confirmed that change in amygdala-sACC connectivity between assessments was correlated with change in NA. Eight participants developed a first episode of depression between the baseline and follow-up assessments: they showed increased amygdala-sACC connectivity at follow-up. Conclusions. Amygdala-sACC connectivity is associated with NA in adolescence, with change in connectivity between these regions showing positive correlation with change in NA. Our observation that the onset of depression was associated with an increase in connectivity between the regions provides support for the neurobiological 'scar' hypothesis of depression.

PMID: 25162634 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Insights from neuroenergetics into the interpretation of functional neuroimaging: an alternative empirical model for studying the brain's support of behavior.

Fri, 08/29/2014 - 15:30

Insights from neuroenergetics into the interpretation of functional neuroimaging: an alternative empirical model for studying the brain's support of behavior.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014 Aug 27;

Authors: Shulman RG, Hyder F, Rothman DL

Abstract
Functional neuroimaging measures quantitative changes in neurophysiological parameters coupled to neuronal activity during observable behavior. These results have usually been interpreted by assuming that mental causation of behavior arises from the simultaneous actions of distinct psychological mechanisms or modules. However, reproducible localization of these modules in the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been elusive other than for sensory systems. In this paper, we show that neuroenergetic studies using PET, calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electrical recordings do not support the standard approach, which identifies the location of mental modules from changes in brain activity. Of importance in reaching this conclusion is that changes in neuronal activities underlying the fMRI signal are many times smaller than the high ubiquitous, baseline neuronal activity, or energy in resting, awake humans. Furthermore, the incremental signal depends on the baseline activity contradicting theoretical assumptions about linearity and insertion of mental modules. To avoid these problems, while making use of these valuable results, we propose that neuroimaging should be used to identify observable brain activities that are necessary for a person's observable behavior rather than being used to seek hypothesized mental processes.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 27 August 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.145.

PMID: 25160670 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Robust brain parcellation using sparse representation on resting-state fMRI.

Thu, 08/28/2014 - 14:30

Robust brain parcellation using sparse representation on resting-state fMRI.

Brain Struct Funct. 2014 Aug 26;

Authors: Zhang Y, Caspers S, Fan L, Fan Y, Song M, Liu C, Mo Y, Roski C, Eickhoff S, Amunts K, Jiang T

Abstract
Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has been widely used to segregate the brain into individual modules based on the presence of distinct connectivity patterns. Many parcellation methods have been proposed for brain parcellation using rs-fMRI, but their results have been somewhat inconsistent, potentially due to various types of noise. In this study, we provide a robust parcellation method for rs-fMRI-based brain parcellation, which constructs a sparse similarity graph based on the sparse representation coefficients of each seed voxel and then uses spectral clustering to identify distinct modules. Both the local time-varying BOLD signals and whole-brain connectivity patterns may be used as features and yield similar parcellation results. The robustness of our method was tested on both simulated and real rs-fMRI datasets. In particular, on simulated rs-fMRI data, sparse representation achieved good performance across different noise levels, including high accuracy of parcellation and high robustness to noise. On real rs-fMRI data, stable parcellation of the medial frontal cortex (MFC) and parietal operculum (OP) were achieved on three different datasets, with high reproducibility within each dataset and high consistency across these results. Besides, the parcellation of MFC was little influenced by the degrees of spatial smoothing. Furthermore, the consistent parcellation of OP was also well corresponding to cytoarchitectonic subdivisions and known somatotopic organizations. Our results demonstrate a new promising approach to robust brain parcellation using resting-state fMRI by sparse representation.

PMID: 25156576 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Network analysis of the default mode network using functional connectivity MRI in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Wed, 08/27/2014 - 13:00
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Network analysis of the default mode network using functional connectivity MRI in temporal lobe epilepsy.

J Vis Exp. 2014;(90)

Authors: Haneef Z, Lenartowicz A, Yeh HJ, Engel J, Stern JM

Abstract
Functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) is an fMRI method that examines the connectivity of different brain areas based on the correlation of BOLD signal fluctuations over time. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of adult epilepsy and involves multiple brain networks. The default mode network (DMN) is involved in conscious, resting state cognition and is thought to be affected in TLE where seizures cause impairment of consciousness. The DMN in epilepsy was examined using seed based fcMRI. The anterior and posterior hubs of the DMN were used as seeds in this analysis. The results show a disconnection between the anterior and posterior hubs of the DMN in TLE during the basal state. In addition, increased DMN connectivity to other brain regions in left TLE along with decreased connectivity in right TLE is revealed. The analysis demonstrates how seed-based fcMRI can be used to probe cerebral networks in brain disorders such as TLE.

PMID: 25146174 [PubMed - in process]

Network based statistical analysis detects changes induced by continuous theta-burst stimulation on brain activity at rest.

Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00

Network based statistical analysis detects changes induced by continuous theta-burst stimulation on brain activity at rest.

Front Psychiatry. 2014;5:97

Authors: Mastropasqua C, Bozzali M, Ponzo V, Giulietti G, Caltagirone C, Cercignani M, Koch G

Abstract
We combined continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) and resting state (RS)-fMRI approaches to investigate changes in functional connectivity (FC) induced by right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)-cTBS at rest in a group of healthy subjects. Seed-based fMRI analysis revealed a specific pattern of correlation between the right prefrontal cortex and several brain regions: based on these results, we defined a 29-node network to assess changes in each network connection before and after, respectively, DLPFC-cTBS and sham sessions. A decrease of correlation between the right prefrontal cortex and right parietal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 40, respectively) was detected after cTBS, while no significant result was found when analyzing sham-session data. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates within-subject changes in FC induced by cTBS applied on prefrontal area. The possibility to induce selective changes in a specific region without interfering with functionally correlated area could have several implications for the study of functional properties of the brain, and for the emerging therapeutic strategies based on transcranial stimulation.

PMID: 25140158 [PubMed]

Longitudinal resting state fMRI analysis in healthy controls and premanifest Huntington's disease gene carriers: A three-year follow-up study.

Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00

Longitudinal resting state fMRI analysis in healthy controls and premanifest Huntington's disease gene carriers: A three-year follow-up study.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2014 Aug 19;

Authors: Odish OF, van den Berg-Huysmans AA, van den Bogaard SJ, Dumas EM, Hart EP, Rombouts SA, van der Grond J, Roos RA, on behalf of the TRACK-HD Investigator Group

Abstract
Background: We previously demonstrated that in the premanifest stage of Huntington's disease (preHD), a reduced functional connectivity exists compared to healthy controls. In the current study, we look at possible changes in functional connectivity occurring longitudinally over a period of 3 years, with the aim of assessing the potential usefulness of this technique as a biomarker for disease progression in preHD. Methods: Twenty-two preHD and 17 healthy control subjects completed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans in two visits with 3 years in between. Differences in resting state connectivity were examined for eight networks of interest using FSL with three different analysis types: a dual regression method, region of interest approach, and an independent component analysis. To evaluate a possible combined effect of gray matter volume change and the change in blood oxygenation level dependent signal, the analysis was performed with and without voxel-wise correction for gray matter volume. To evaluate possible correlations between functional connectivity change and the predicted time to disease onset, the preHD group was classed as preHD-A if ≥10.9 years and preHD-B if <10.9 years from predicted disease onset. Possible correlations between burden of pathology score and functional connectivity change in preHD were also assessed. Finally, longitudinal change in whole brain and striatal volumetric measures was assessed in the studied cohort. Results: Longitudinal analysis of the resting state-fMRI (RS-fMRI) data revealed no differences in the degree of connectivity change between the groups over a period of 3 years, though a significantly higher rate of striatal atrophy was found in the preHD group compared to controls in the same period. Discussion: Based on the results found in this study, the provisional conclusion is that RS-fMRI lacks sensitivity in detecting changes in functional connectivity in HD gene carriers prior to disease manifestation over a 3-year follow-up period. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID: 25139578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

When you smile, you become happy: Evidence from resting state task-based fMRI.

Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00

When you smile, you become happy: Evidence from resting state task-based fMRI.

Biol Psychol. 2014 Aug 16;

Authors: Chang J, Zhang M, Hitchman G, Qiu J, Liu Y

Abstract
Simulation studies on emotion have shown that facial actions can initiate and modulate particular emotions. However, the neural mechanisms of these initiating and modulating functions are unclear. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and task-based fMRI to explore these processes by examining spontaneous cerebral activities and brain activations under two conditions: holding a pen using only the teeth (HPT: facilitating the muscles typically associated with smiling) and holding a pen using only the lips (HPL: inhibiting the muscles typically associated with smiling). The resting-state fMRI results showed that compared with the HPL condition, significant increases in the amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuations were found in the right posterior cingulate gyrus [PCG; Brodmann area 31 (BA31)] and in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG; BA9) in the HPT condition. These findings might be related to the initiation of positive emotions (PCG) and to the control and allocation of attention (MFG). The task-based fMRI results showed that the inferior parietal lobule, left supplementary motor area, superior parietal lobule, precuneus, and bilateral middle cingulum were active when facial manipulation influenced the recognition of emotional facial expressions. These results demonstrate that facial actions might not only initiate a particular emotion and draw attention, but also influence face-based emotion recognition.

PMID: 25139308 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Frequency-dependent Changes in the Amplitude of Low-frequency Fluctuations in Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Disease (SIVD): A Resting-state fMRI Study.

Tue, 08/26/2014 - 12:00

Frequency-dependent Changes in the Amplitude of Low-frequency Fluctuations in Subcortical Ischemic Vascular Disease (SIVD): A Resting-state fMRI Study.

Behav Brain Res. 2014 Aug 16;

Authors: Li C, Liu C, Yin X, Yang J, Gui L, Wei L, Wang J

Abstract
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) allowed researchers to detect intrinsic brain activity during rest and has been considered an analytical tool for evaluation of dementia. Previously, subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) has been found decreased amplitude low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in a widely frequency range (0.01-0.08Hz) in the bilateral precuneus and increased ALFF values in the bilateral ACC, left insula and hippocampus, which showed significant correlations with the cognitive performance. In this study we analyzed the ALFF of 30 patients with SIVD in two different frequency bands (slow-5: 0.01-0.027Hz; slow-4: 0.027-0.073Hz). In the slow-5 band, SIVD patients compared with controls exhibited significant higher ALFF in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, right putamen and right supplementary motor area, while lower ALFF in the right precuneus and right angular gyrus. A close correlation was found between the ALFF value of the right angular gyrus and ADL scores. In the slow-4 band, SIVD patients only exhibited increased ALFF in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, right putamen, left fusiform gyrus and no correlation with cognitive scores was found. Our data demonstrate that SIVD patients have widespread abnormal intrinsic neural oscillations, which are dependent on specific frequency bands. ALFF of right angular gyrus at slow-5 band is more specific for SIVD and may be a useful tool to help SIVD diagnosis.

PMID: 25138697 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Reduced resting-state functional connectivity of the somatosensory cortex predicts psychopathological symptoms in women with bulimia nervosa.

Thu, 08/21/2014 - 17:30
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Reduced resting-state functional connectivity of the somatosensory cortex predicts psychopathological symptoms in women with bulimia nervosa.

Front Behav Neurosci. 2014;8:270

Authors: Lavagnino L, Amianto F, D'Agata F, Huang Z, Mortara P, Abbate-Daga G, Marzola E, Spalatro A, Fassino S, Northoff G

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) of several brain networks have been demonstrated in eating disorders. However, very few studies are currently available on brain network dysfunctions in bulimia nervosa (BN). The somatosensory network is central in processing body-related stimuli and it may be altered in BN. The present study therefore aimed to investigate rs-FC in the somatosensory network in bulimic women.
METHODS: Sixteen medication-free women with BN (age = 23 ± 5 years) and 18 matched controls (age = 23 ± 3 years) underwent a functional magnetic resonance resting-state scan and assessment of eating disorder symptoms. Within-network and seed-based functional connectivity analyses were conducted to assess rs-FC within the somatosensory network and to other areas of the brain.
RESULTS: Bulimia nervosa patients showed a decreased rs-FC both within the somatosensory network (t = 9.0, df = 1, P = 0.005) and with posterior cingulate cortex and two visual areas (the right middle occipital gyrus and the right cuneus) (P = 0.05 corrected for multiple comparison). The rs-FC of the left paracentral lobule with the right middle occipital gyrus correlated with psychopathology measures like bulimia (r = -0.4; P = 0.02) and interoceptive awareness (r = -0.4; P = 0.01). Analyses were conducted using age, BMI (body mass index), and depressive symptoms as covariates.
CONCLUSION: Our findings show a specific alteration of the rs-FC of the somatosensory cortex in BN patients, which correlates with eating disorder symptoms. The region in the right middle occipital gyrus is implicated in body processing and is known as extrastriate body area (EBA). The connectivity between the somatosensory cortex and the EBA might be related to dysfunctions in body image processing. The results should be considered preliminary due to the small sample size.

PMID: 25136302 [PubMed]

Resting state functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder.

Wed, 08/20/2014 - 22:30

Resting state functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2014 Aug 19;

Authors: Kennis M, Rademaker AR, van Rooij SJ, Kahn RS, Geuze E

Abstract
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that is associated with structural and functional alterations in several brain areas, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Here, we examine resting state functional connectivity of ACC subdivisions in PTSD, using a seed-based approach. Resting state magnetic resonance images were obtained from male veterans with (n = 31) and without (n = 25) PTSD, and healthy male civilian controls (n = 25). Veterans with and without PTSD (combat controls) had reduced functional connectivity compared to healthy controls between the caudal ACC and the precentral gyrus, and between the perigenual ACC and the superior medial gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. Combat controls had increased connectivity between the rostral ACC and precentral/middle frontal gyrus compared to PTSD patients and healthy civilian controls. The resting state functional connectivity differences in the perigenual ACC network reported here indicate that veterans differ from healthy controls, potentially due to military training, deployment, and/or trauma exposure. In addition, specific alterations in the combat controls may potentially be related to resilience. These results underline the importance of distinguishing trauma-exposed (combat) controls from healthy civilian controls when studying PTSD. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID: 25137414 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Evidence that neurovascular coupling underlying the BOLD effect increases with age during childhood.

Wed, 08/20/2014 - 22:30

Evidence that neurovascular coupling underlying the BOLD effect increases with age during childhood.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2014 Aug 19;

Authors: Schmithorst VJ, Vannest J, Lee G, Hernandez-Garcia L, Plante E, Rajagopal A, Holland SK, The CMIND Authorship Consortium

Abstract
Functional MRI using blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) imaging has provided unprecedented insights into the maturation of the human brain. Task-based fMRI studies have shown BOLD signal increases with age during development (ages 5-18) for many cognitive domains such as language and executive function, while functional connectivity (resting-state) fMRI studies investigating regionally synchronous BOLD fluctuations have revealed a developing functional organization of the brain from a local into a more distributed architecture. However, interpretation of these results is confounded by the fact that the BOLD signal is directly related to blood oxygenation driven by changes in blood flow and only indirectly related to neuronal activity, and may thus be affected by changing neuronal-vascular coupling. BOLD signal and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured simultaneously in a cohort of 113 typically developing awake participants ages 3-18 performing a narrative comprehension task. Using a novel voxelwise wild bootstrap analysis technique, an increased ratio of BOLD signal to relative CBF signal change with age (indicative of increased neuronal-vascular coupling) was seen in the middle temporal gyri and the left inferior frontal gyrus. Additionally, evidence of decreased relative oxygen metabolism (indicative of decreased neuronal activity) with age was found in the same regions. These findings raise concern that results of developmental BOLD studies cannot be unambiguously attributed to neuronal activity. Astrocytes and astrocytic processes may significantly affect the maturing functional architecture of the brain, consistent with recent research demonstrating a key role for astrocytes in mediating increased CBF following neuronal activity and for astrocyte processes in modulating synaptic connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID: 25137219 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND COMBAT POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DIFFERENTIALLY PREDICT FEAR-RELATED FRONTO-SUBCORTICAL CONNECTIVITY.

Wed, 08/20/2014 - 16:00

CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT AND COMBAT POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DIFFERENTIALLY PREDICT FEAR-RELATED FRONTO-SUBCORTICAL CONNECTIVITY.

Depress Anxiety. 2014 Aug 8;

Authors: Birn RM, Patriat R, Phillips ML, Germain A, Herringa RJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been characterized by altered fear-network connectivity. Childhood trauma is a major risk factor for adult PTSD, yet its contribution to fear-network connectivity in PTSD remains unexplored. We examined, within a single model, the contribution of childhood maltreatment, combat exposure, and combat-related posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) to resting-state connectivity (rs-FC) of the amygdala and hippocampus in military veterans.
METHODS: Medication-free male veterans (n = 27, average 26.6 years) with a range of PTSS completed resting-state fMRI. Measures including the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and Combat Exposure Scale (CES) were used to predict rs-FC using multilinear regression. Fear-network seeds included the amygdala and hippocampus.
RESULTS: Amygdala: CTQ predicted lower connectivity to ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), but greater anticorrelation with dorsal/lateral PFC. CAPS positively predicted connectivity to insula, and loss of anticorrelation with dorsomedial/dorsolateral (dm/dl)PFC. Hippocampus: CTQ predicted lower connectivity to vmPFC, but greater anticorrelation with dm/dlPFC. CES predicted greater anticorrelation, whereas CAPS predicted less anticorrelation with dmPFC.
CONCLUSIONS: Childhood trauma, combat exposure, and PTSS differentially predict fear-network rs-FC. Childhood maltreatment may weaken ventral prefrontal-subcortical circuitry important in automatic fear regulation, but, in a compensatory manner, may also strengthen dorsal prefrontal-subcortical pathways involved in more effortful emotion regulation. PTSD symptoms, in turn, appear to emerge with the loss of connectivity in the latter pathway. These findings suggest potential mechanisms by which developmental trauma exposure leads to adult PTSD, and which brain mechanisms are associated with the emergence of PTSD symptoms.

PMID: 25132653 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Hyper-coupling between working memory task-evoked activations and amplitude of spontaneous fluctuations in first-episode schizophrenia.

Wed, 08/20/2014 - 16:00

Hyper-coupling between working memory task-evoked activations and amplitude of spontaneous fluctuations in first-episode schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res. 2014 Aug 14;

Authors: Zhou Y, Wang Z, Zuo XN, Zhang H, Wang Y, Jiang T, Liu Z

Abstract
Working memory (WM) deficit is an important component of impaired cognition in schizophrenia. However, between-studies inconsistencies as to the specific functional substrate imply that inter-individual variability (IIV) in the WM performance is associated with IIV in brain activity in schizophrenia. To examine the neural substrate of this WM IIV, we studied whether the neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in WM capacity are the same in schizophrenia patients and healthy people. We correlated the IIV of the task-evoked brain activity and task performance during an n-back WM task with the IIV of the moment-to-moment variability in intrinsic resting-state activity, as measured by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) and further compared this relationship between 17 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and 18 healthy controls. Between-group comparisons of the correlation patterns indicated aberrant ALFF-WM activation correlations and ALFF-WM performance correlations in the FES patients, but no significant changes were detected in any single measurement of these three characteristics. Specifically, we found increased positive ALFF-WM activation correlations in the bilateral lateral prefrontal cortices, posterior parietal cortices and fusiform gyri in the FES patients. We also observed significant increases in positive ALFF-WM performance correlations in the bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortices in the FES patients. This hyper-coupling between the ALFF and fMRI measures during a WM task may indicate that it was difficult for the patients to detach themselves from one state to transition to another and suggests that the inefficient cortical function in schizophrenia stems from the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain.

PMID: 25132644 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Heritability of head motion during resting state functional MRI in 462 healthy twins.

Wed, 08/20/2014 - 16:00

Heritability of head motion during resting state functional MRI in 462 healthy twins.

Neuroimage. 2014 Aug 12;

Authors: Couvy-Duchesne B, Blokland GA, Hickie IB, Thompson PM, Martin NG, de Zubicaray GI, McMahon KL, Wright MJ

Abstract
Head motion (HM) is a critical confounding factor in functional MRI. Here we investigate whether HM during resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI) is influenced by genetic factors in a sample of 462 twins (65% female; 101 MZ (monozygotic) and 130 DZ (dizygotic) twin pairs; mean age: 21 (SD=3.16), range 16-29). Heritability estimates for three HM components-mean translation (MT), maximum translation (MAXT) and mean rotation (MR)-ranged from 37 to 51%. We detected a significant common genetic influence on HM variability, with about two-thirds (genetic correlations range 0.76-1.00) of the variance shared between MR, MT and MAXT. A composite metric (HM-PC1), which aggregated these three, was also moderately heritable (h(2)=42%). Using a sub-sample (N=35) of the twins we confirmed that mean and maximum translational and rotational motions were consistent "traits" over repeated scans (r=0.53-0.59); reliability was even higher for the composite metric (r=0.66). In addition, phenotypic and cross-trait cross-twin correlations between HM and resting state functional connectivities (RS-FCs) with Brodmann areas (BA) 44 and 45, in which RS-FCs were found to be moderately heritable (BA44: h(2)̅=0.23 (sd=0.041), BA45: h(2)̅=0.26 (sd=0.061) ), indicated that HM might not represent a major bias in genetic studies using FCs. Even so, the HM effect on FC was not completely eliminated after regression. HM may be a valuable endophenotype whose relationship with brain disorders remains to be elucidated.

PMID: 25132021 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Synchronous multi-scale neuroimaging environment for critically sampled physiological analysis of brain function- Hepta-scan concept.

Wed, 08/20/2014 - 16:00

Synchronous multi-scale neuroimaging environment for critically sampled physiological analysis of brain function- Hepta-scan concept.

Brain Connect. 2014 Aug 16;

Authors: Korhonen VO, Hiltunen TK, Myllylä TS, Wang S, Kantola J, Nikkinen J, Zang YF, Levan P, Kiviniemi V

Abstract
Functional connectivity of the resting state networks (RSNs) of the brain is thought to be mediated by very low frequency fluctuations (VLFFs < 0.1 Hz) in neuronal activity. However, vasomotor waves and cardiorespiratory pulsations influence indirect measures of brain function, such as the functional MRI (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal. How strongly physiological oscillations correlate with spontaneous BOLD signals is not known, partially due to differences in the data sampling rates of different methods. Recent ultrafast inverse imaging sequences, including magnetic resonance encephalography (MREG), enable critical sampling of these signals. In this study, we describe a multimodal concept, referred to as Hepta-scan, which incorporates synchronous MREG with scalp electroencephalography (EEG), near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) and anesthesia monitoring. Our preliminary results support the idea that, in the absence of aliased cardiorespiratory signals, very low frequency fluctuations in the BOLD signal are affected by vasomotor and electrophysiological sources. Furthermore, MREG signals showed a high correlation coefficient between the ventromedial default mode network (DMNvmpf) and electrophysiological signals, especially in the VLF range. Also oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin and vasomotor waves were found to correlate with DMNvmpf. Intriguingly, using shorter time windows in these correlation measurements produced significantly (p<0.05) higher positive and negative correlation coefficients, suggesting temporal non-stationary behavior between the measurements. Focusing on the VLF range strongly increased correlation strength.

PMID: 25131996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Resting-state functional connectivity of the human hypothalamus.

Wed, 08/20/2014 - 16:00

Resting-state functional connectivity of the human hypothalamus.

Hum Brain Mapp. 2014 Aug 14;

Authors: Kullmann S, Heni M, Linder K, Zipfel S, Häring HU, Veit R, Fritsche A, Preissl H

Abstract
The hypothalamus is of enormous importance for multiple bodily functions such as energy homeostasis. Especially, rodent studies have greatly contributed to our understanding how specific hypothalamic subregions integrate peripheral and central signals into the brain to control food intake. In humans, however, the neural circuitry of the hypothalamus, with its different subregions, has not been delineated. Hence, the aim of this study was to map the hypothalamus network using resting-state functional connectivity (FC) analyses from the medial hypothalamus (MH) and lateral hypothalamus (LH) in healthy normal-weight adults (n = 49). Furthermore, in a separate sample, we examined differences within the LH and MH networks between healthy normal-weight (n = 25) versus overweight/obese adults (n = 23). FC patterns from the LH and MH revealed significant connections to the striatum, thalamus, brainstem, orbitofrontal cortex, middle and posterior cingulum and temporal brain regions. However, our analysis revealed subtler distinctions within hypothalamic subregions. The LH was functionally stronger connected to the dorsal striatum, anterior cingulum, and frontal operculum, while the MH showed stronger functional connections to the nucleus accumbens and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Furthermore, overweight/obese participants revealed heightened FC in the orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens within the MH network. Our results indicate that the MH and LH network are tapped into different parts of the dopaminergic circuitry of the brain, potentially modulating food reward based on the functional connections to the ventral and dorsal striatum, respectively. In obese adults, FC changes were observed in the MH network. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PMID: 25131690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Homotopic connectivity in drug-naïve, first-episode, early-onset schizophrenia.

Wed, 08/20/2014 - 16:00

Homotopic connectivity in drug-naïve, first-episode, early-onset schizophrenia.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014 Aug 18;

Authors: Li HJ, Xu Y, Zhang KR, Hoptman MJ, Zuo XN

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia has been extensively tested in adults. Recent studies have reported the presence of brain disconnection in younger patients, adding evidence to support the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. Because of drug confounds in chronic and medicated patients, it has been extremely challenging for researchers to directly investigate abnormalities in the development of connectivity and their role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The present study aimed to examine functional homotopy - a measure of interhemispheric connection - and its relevance to clinical symptoms in first-episode drug-naïve early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) patients.
METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 26 first-episode drug-naïve EOS patients (age: 14.5 ± 1.94, 13 males) and 25 matched typically developing controls (TDCs) (age: 14.4 ± 2.97, 13 males). We were mainly concerned with the functional connectivity between any pair of symmetric interhemispheric voxels (i.e., functional homotopy) measured by voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC).
RESULTS: Early-onset schizophrenia patients exhibited both global and regional VMHC reductions in comparison with TDCs. Reduced VMHC values were observed within the superior temporal cortex and postcentral gyrus. These interhemispheric synchronization deficits were negatively correlated with negative symptom of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Moreover, regions of interest analyses based on left and right clusters of temporal cortex and postcentral gyrus revealed abnormal heterotopic connectivity in EOS patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide novel neurodevelopmental evidence for the disconnection hypothesis of schizophrenia and suggest that these alterations occur early in the course of the disease and are independent of medication status.

PMID: 25130214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]