Brain and cognition abnormalities in long-term anabolic-androgenic steroid users.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 May 7;
Authors: Kaufman MJ, Janes AC, Hudson JI, Brennan BP, Kanayama G, Kerrigan AR, Jensen JE, Pope HG
BACKGROUND: Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is associated with psychiatric symptoms including increased aggression as well as with cognitive dysfunction. The brain effects of long-term AAS use have not been assessed in humans.
METHODS: This multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain compared 10 male weightlifters reporting long-term AAS use with 10 age-matched weightlifters reporting no AAS exposure. Participants were administered visuospatial memory tests and underwent neuroimaging. Brain volumetric analyses were performed; resting-state fMRI functional connectivity (rsFC) was evaluated using a region-of-interest analysis focused on the amygdala; and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) metabolites were quantified by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS).
RESULTS: AAS users had larger right amygdala volumes than nonusers (P=0.002) and reduced rsFC between right amygdala and frontal, striatal, limbic, hippocampal, and visual cortical areas. Left amygdala volumes were slightly larger in AAS users (P=0.061) but few group differences were detected in left amygdala rsFC. AAS users also had lower dACC scyllo-inositol levels (P=0.004) and higher glutamine/glutamate ratios (P=0.028), possibly reflecting increased glutamate turnover. On a visuospatial cognitive task, AAS users performed more poorly than nonusers, with the difference approaching significance (P=0.053).
CONCLUSIONS: Long-term AAS use is associated with right amygdala enlargement and reduced right amygdala rsFC with brain areas involved in cognitive control and spatial memory, which could contribute to the psychiatric effects and cognitive dysfunction associated with AAS use. The MRS abnormalities we detected could reflect enhanced glutamate turnover and increased vulnerability to neurotoxic or neurodegenerative processes, which could contribute to AAS-associated cognitive dysfunction.
PMID: 25986964 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Altered resting state functional network connectivity in children absence epilepsy.
J Neurol Sci. 2015 May 8;
Authors: Li Q, Cao W, Liao X, Chen Z, Yang T, Gong Q, Zhou D, Luo C, Yao D
Altered functional connectivity has been associated with the influence of epileptic activity. Abnormalities in connectivity, particularly in dorsal attention (DAN), salience (SN) and default mode (DMN) networks, might contribute to the loss of consciousness during seizures and cognitive deficits in patients with children absence epilepsy (CAE). The objective of the present study was to identify whether the functional network connectivity (FNC) is changed between patients with CAE and healthy controls. Using independent component analysis, twelve resting state networks (RSNs) were identified in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data sets in eighteen CAE patients and twenty-one healthy controls. Analyses of the group differences in FNC strength were conducted, controlling for age and gender effects. The findings showed that some functional networks were clustered into two subgroups, correlated within subgroups and antagonized with each other. Compared with the controls, patients with CAE demonstrated abnormal FNC strength among three networks: DMN, DAN and SN. In addition, the antagonism of two subgroups was altered. These results might reflect the underlying neuronal functional impairment or altered integration among these RSNs in CAE, suggesting that the abnormal functional connectivity is likely to imply the pathological mechanism associated with the accumulative influence of epileptic activity. These findings contribute to the understanding of the behavior abnormality in CAE, such as disturbed executive and attentional functions and the loss of consciousness during absence seizures.
PMID: 25982500 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Multimodal connectivity mapping of the human left anterior and posterior lateral prefrontal cortex.
Brain Struct Funct. 2015 May 16;
Authors: Reid AT, Bzdok D, Langner R, Fox PT, Laird AR, Amunts K, Eickhoff SB, Eickhoff CR
Working memory is essential for many of our distinctly human abilities, including reasoning, problem solving, and planning. Research spanning many decades has helped to refine our understanding of this high-level function as comprising several hierarchically organized components, some which maintain information in the conscious mind, and others which manipulate and reorganize this information in useful ways. In the neocortex, these processes are likely implemented by a distributed frontoparietal network, with more posterior regions serving to maintain volatile information, and more anterior regions subserving the manipulation of this information. Recent meta-analytic findings have identified the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex, in particular, as being generally engaged by working memory tasks, while the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex was more strongly associated with the cognitive load required by these tasks. These findings suggest specific roles for these regions in the cognitive control processes underlying working memory. To further characterize these regions, we applied three distinct seed-based methods for determining cortical connectivity. Specifically, we employed meta-analytic connectivity mapping across task-based fMRI experiments, resting-state BOLD correlations, and VBM-based structural covariance. We found a frontoparietal pattern of convergence which strongly resembled the working memory networks identified in previous research. A contrast between anterior and posterior parts of the lateral prefrontal cortex revealed distinct connectivity patterns consistent with the idea of a hierarchical organization of frontoparietal networks. Moreover, we found a distributed network that was anticorrelated with the anterior seed region, which included most of the default mode network and a subcomponent related to social and emotional processing. These findings fit well with the internal attention model of working memory, in which representation of information is processed according to an anteroposterior gradient of abstract-to-concrete representations.
PMID: 25982222 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Neurochemical Modulation in Posteromedial Default-mode Network Cortex Induced by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.
Brain Stimul. 2015 Apr 24;
Authors: Vidal-Piñeiro D, Martín-Trias P, Falcón C, Bargalló N, Clemente IC, Valls-Solé J, Junqué C, Pascual-Leone A, Bartrés-Faz D
BACKGROUND: The Default Mode Network (DMN) is severely compromised in several psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders where plasticity alterations are observed. Glutamate and GABA are the major excitatory and inhibitory brain neurotransmitters respectively and are strongly related to plasticity responses and large-scale network expression.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether regional Glx (Glutamate + Glutamine) and GABA could be modulated within the DMN after experimentally-controlled induction of plasticity and to study the effect of intrinsic connectivity over brain responses to stimulation.
METHODS: We applied individually-guided neuronavigated Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) to the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in-between two magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) acquisitions to 36 young subjects. A resting-state fMRI sequence was also acquired before stimulation.
RESULTS: After intermittent TBS, distal GABA increases in posteromedial DMN areas were observed. Instead, no significant changes were detected locally, in left IPL areas. Neurotransmitter modulation in posteromedial areas was related to baseline fMRI connectivity between this region and the TBS-targeted area.
CONCLUSIONS: The prediction of neurotransmitter modulation by connectivity highlights the relevance of connectivity patterns to understand brain responses to plasticity-inducing protocols. The ability to modulate GABA in a key core of the DMN by means of TBS may open new avenues to evaluate plasticity mechanisms in a key area for major neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions.
PMID: 25981159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Resting state signatures of domain and demand-specific memory performance.
Neuroimage. 2015 May 14;
Authors: van Dam WO, Decker S, Durbin JS, Vendemia JM, Desai RH
Working memory (WM) is one of the key constructs in understanding higher-level cognition. We examined whether patterns of activity in the resting state in individual subjects are correlated with their off-line working and short-term memory capabilities. Participants completed a resting-state fMRI scan and offline working and short-term memory (STM) tests with both verbal and visual materials. We calculated fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) from the resting state data, and also computed connectivity between seeds placed in frontal and parietal lobes. Correlating fALFF values with behavioral measures showed that the fALFF values in a widespread fronto-parietal network during rest were positively correlated with a combined memory measure. In addition, STM showed a significant correlation with fALFF within the right angular gyrus and left middle occipital gyrus, whereas WM was correlated with fALFF values within the right IPS and left dorsomedial cerebellar cortex. Furthermore, verbal and visuospatial memory capacities were associated with dissociable patterns of low-frequency fluctuations. Seed-based connectivity showed correlations with the verbal WM measure in the left hemisphere, and with the visual WM in the right hemisphere. These findings contribute to our understanding of how differences in spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations at rest are correlated with differences in cognitive performance.
PMID: 25980975 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Prefrontal hypometabolism in Alzheimer disease is related to longitudinal amyloid accumulation in remote brain regions.
J Nucl Med. 2015 Mar;56(3):399-404
Authors: Klupp E, Grimmer T, Tahmasian M, Sorg C, Yakushev I, Yousefi BH, Drzezga A, Förster S
UNLABELLED: In PET studies of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), prominent hypometabolism can occur in brain regions without major amyloid load. These hypometabolism-only (HO) areas may not be explained easily as a consequence of local amyloid toxicity. The aim of this longitudinal multimodal imaging study was the investigation of locoregional and remote relationships between metabolism in HO areas and longitudinal amyloid increase in functionally connected brain areas, with a particular focus on intrinsic functional connectivity as a relevant linking mechanism between pathology and dysfunction.
METHODS: Fifteen AD patients underwent longitudinal examinations with (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) and (18)F-FDG PET (mean follow-up period, 2 y). The peak HO region was identified by the subtraction of equally thresholded statistical T maps (hypometabolism minus amyloid burden), resulting from voxel-based statistical parametric mapping group comparisons between the AD patients and 15 healthy controls. Then functionally connected and nonconnected brain networks were identified by means of seed-based intrinsic functional connectivity analysis of the resting-state functional MRI data of healthy controls. Finally, network-based, region-of-interest-based, and voxel-based correlations were calculated between longitudinal changes of normalized (11)C-PiB binding and (18)F-FDG metabolism.
RESULTS: Positive voxel-based and region-of-interest-based correlations were demonstrated between longitudinal (11)C-PiB increases in the HO-connected network, encompassing bilateral temporoparietal and frontal brain regions, and metabolic changes in the peak HO region as well as locoregionally within several AD-typical brain regions.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that in AD amyloid accumulation in remote but functionally connected brain regions may significantly contribute to longitudinally evolving hypometabolism in brain regions not strongly affected by local amyloid pathology, supporting the amyloid- and network-degeneration hypothesis.
PMID: 25678488 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Between-Network Connectivity occurs in brain regions lacking layer IV input.
Neuroimage. 2015 May 12;
Authors: Wylie KP, Kronberg E, Maharajh K, Smucny J, Cornier MA, Tregellas JR
To better understand the cortical circuitry underlying connectivity between large-scale neural networks, we develop a novel, data-driven approach to identify potential integration subregions. Between-Network Connectivity (BNC) associated with any anatomical region is the amount of connectivity between that point and all large-scale networks, as measured using simple and multiple correlations. It is straightforward to calculate and applicable to functional networks identified using Independent Components Analysis. We calculated BNC for all fMRI voxels within the brain and compared the results to known regional cytoarchitectural patterns. Based on previous observations of the relationship between macroscopic connectivity and microscopic cytoarchitecture, we predicted that areas with high BNC will be located in paralimbic subregions with an undifferentiated laminar structure. Results suggest that the anterior insula and dorsal posterior cingulate cortices play prominent roles in information integration. Cytoarchitecturely, these areas show agranular or dysgranular cytologies with absent or disrupted cortical layer IV. Since layer IV is the primary recipient of feed-forward thalamocortical connections, and due to the exclusive nature of driving connections to this layer, we suggest that the absence of cortical layer IV might allow for information to be exchanged across networks, and is an organizational characteristic of brain-subregions serving as inter-network communication hubs.
PMID: 25979667 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
A high resolution 7-Tesla resting-state fMRI test-retest dataset with cognitive and physiological measures.
Sci Data. 2015;2:140054
Authors: Gorgolewski KJ, Mendes N, Wilfling D, Wladimirow E, Gauthier CJ, Bonnen T, Ruby FJ, Trampel R, Bazin PL, Cozatl R, Smallwood J, Margulies DS
Here we present a test-retest dataset of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired at rest. 22 participants were scanned during two sessions spaced one week apart. Each session includes two 1.5 mm isotropic whole-brain scans and one 0.75 mm isotropic scan of the prefrontal cortex, giving a total of six time-points. Additionally, the dataset includes measures of mood, sustained attention, blood pressure, respiration, pulse, and the content of self-generated thoughts (mind wandering). This data enables the investigation of sources of both intra- and inter-session variability not only limited to physiological changes, but also including alterations in cognitive and affective states, at high spatial resolution. The dataset is accompanied by a detailed experimental protocol and source code of all stimuli used.
PMID: 25977805 [PubMed]
Resting State-fMRI with ReHo Analysis as a Non-Invasive Modality for the Prognosis of Cirrhotic Patients with Overt Hepatic Encephalopathy.
PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0126834
Authors: Lin WC, Hsu TW, Chen CL, Lu CH, Chen HL, Cheng YF
BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationships among regional activity abnormalities, clinical disease severity, and prognosis in cirrhotic patients with overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI).
METHODS: Regional homogeneity (ReHo) values of 12 cirrhotic patients with OHE and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were calculated from rs-fMRI. Two-sample t-test was performed on individual ReHo maps between the two groups. The relationships between ReHo variation, disease severity, and prognosis were analyzed.
RESULTS: Cirrhotic patients with OHE had significantly low ReHo values in the left middle cingulum, bilateral superior temporal, left inferior orbito-frontal, right calcarine, left inferior frontal gyrus, left post-central, left inferior temporal, and left lingual areas, and high ReHo in the right superior frontal, right inferior temporal, right caudate, and cerebellum. There was significant group difference in the right superior temporal lobe (p=0.016) and crus1 of the left cerebellum (p=0.015) between survivors and non-survivors in the OHE group. Worse Glasgow Coma Scale was associated with increased local connectivity in the left cerebellar crus I (r= -0.868, p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Information on the functional activity of cirrhotic patients with OHE suggests the use of rs-fMRI with ReHo analysis as a non-invasive prognosticating modality.
PMID: 25973853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Functional subdivisions of medial parieto-occipital cortex in humans and nonhuman primates using resting-state fMRI.
Neuroimage. 2015 May 10;
Authors: Hutchison RM, Culham JC, Flanagan JR, Everling S, Gallivan JP
Based on its diverse and wide-spread patterns of connectivity, primate posteromedial cortex (PMC) is well positioned to support roles in several aspects of sensory-, cognitive- and motor-related processing. Previous work in both humans and non-human primates (NHPs) using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) suggests that a subregion of PMC, the medial parieto-occipital cortex (mPOC), by virtue of its intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) with visual cortex, may only play a role in higher-order visual processing. Recent neuroanatomical tracer studies in NHPs, however, demonstrate that mPOC also has prominent cortico-cortical connections with several frontoparietal structures involved in movement planning and control, a finding consistent with increasing observations of reach- and grasp-related activity in the mPOC of both NHPs and humans. To reconcile these observations, here we used rs-fMRI data collected from both awake humans and anesthetized macaque monkeys to more closely examine and compare parcellations of mPOC across species and explore the FC patterns associated with these subdivisions. Seed-based and voxel-wise hierarchical cluster analyses revealed four broad spatially separated functional boundaries that correspond with graded differences in whole-brain FC patterns in each species. The patterns of FC observed are consistent with mPOC forming a critical hub of networks involved in action planning and control, spatial navigation, and working memory. In addition, our comparison between species indicates that while there are several similarities, there may be some species-specific differences in functional neural organization. These findings and the associated theoretical implications are discussed.
PMID: 25970649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Testing a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development using resting-state connectivity analyses.
Neuroimage. 2015 May 9;
Authors: Van Duijvenvoorde AC, Achterberg M, Braams BR, Peters S, Crone EA
The current study aimed to test a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development by studying changes in intrinsic functional connectivity within and across networks typically associated with cognitive-control and affective-motivational processes. To this end, resting-state and task-related fMRI data were collected of 269 participants (ages 8-25). Resting-state analyses focused on seeds derived from task-related neural activation in the same participants: the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) from a cognitive rule-learning paradigm and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) from a reward-paradigm. Whole-brain seed-based resting-state analyses showed an age-related increase in dlPFC connectivity with the caudate and thalamus, and an age-related decrease in connectivity with the (pre)motor cortex. nAcc connectivity showed a strengthening of connectivity with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and subcortical structures such as the hippocampus, and a specific age-related decrease in connectivity with the ventral medial PFC (vmPFC). Behavioral measures from both functional paradigms correlated with resting-state connectivity strength with their respective seed. That is, age-related change in learning performance was mediated by connectivity between the dlPFC and thalamus, and age-related change in winning pleasure was mediated by connectivity between the nAcc and vmPFC. These patterns indicate (i) strengthening of connectivity between regions that support control and learning, (ii) more independent functioning of regions that support motor and control networks, and (iii) more independent functioning of regions that support motivation and valuation networks with age. These results are interpreted vis-à-vis a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development.
PMID: 25969399 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Decreased amygdala-insula resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth.
Psychiatry Res. 2015 Jan 30;231(1):77-86
Authors: Bebko G, Bertocci M, Chase H, Dwojak A, Bonar L, Almeida J, Perlman SB, Versace A, Schirda C, Travis M, Gill MK, Demeter C, Diwadkar V, Sunshine J, Holland S, Kowatch R, Birmaher B, Axelson D, Horwitz S, Frazier T, Arnold LE, Fristad M, Youngstrom E, Findling R, Phillips ML
The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) adopts a dimensional approach for examining pathophysiological processes underlying categorically defined psychiatric diagnoses. We used this framework to examine relationships among symptom dimensions, diagnostic categories, and resting state connectivity in behaviorally and emotionally dysregulated youth selected from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms study (n=42) and healthy control youth (n=18). Region of interest analyses examined relationships among resting state connectivity, symptom dimensions (behavioral and emotional dysregulation measured with the Parent General Behavior Inventory-10 Item Mania Scale [PGBI-10M]; dimensional severity measures of mania, depression, anxiety), and diagnostic categories (Bipolar Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Anxiety Disorders, and Disruptive Behavior Disorders). After adjusting for demographic variables, two dimensional measures showed significant inverse relationships with resting state connectivity, regardless of diagnosis: 1) PGBI-10M with amygdala-left posterior insula/bilateral putamen; and 2) depressive symptoms with amygdala-right posterior insula connectivity. Diagnostic categories showed no significant relationships with resting state connectivity. Resting state connectivity between amygdala and posterior insula decreased with increasing severity of behavioral and emotional dysregulation and depression; this suggests an intrinsic functional uncoupling of key neural regions supporting emotion processing and regulation. These findings support the RDoC dimensional approach for characterizing pathophysiologic processes that cut across different psychiatric disorders.
PMID: 25433424 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Reconfigurable task-dependent functional coupling modes cluster around a core functional architecture.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2014 Oct 5;369(1653)
Authors: Krienen FM, Yeo BT, Buckner RL
Functional coupling across distributed brain regions varies across task contexts, yet there are stable features. To better understand the range and central tendencies of network configurations, coupling patterns were explored using functional MRI (fMRI) across 14 distinct continuously performed task states ranging from passive fixation to increasingly demanding classification tasks. Mean global correlation profiles across the cortex ranged from 0.69 to 0.82 between task states. Network configurations from both passive fixation and classification tasks similarly predicted task coactivation patterns estimated from meta-analysis of the literature. Thus, even across markedly different task states, central tendencies dominate the coupling configurations. Beyond these shared components, distinct task states displayed significant differences in coupling patterns in response to their varied demands. One possibility is that anatomical connectivity provides constraints that act as attractors pulling network configurations towards a limited number of robust states. Reconfigurable coupling modes emerge as significant modifications to a core functional architecture.
PMID: 25180304 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Computer aided diagnosis of schizophrenia on resting state fMRI data by ensembles of ELM.
Neural Netw. 2015 Apr 23;68:23-33
Authors: Chyzhyk D, Savio A, Graña M
Resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) is increasingly used for the identification of image biomarkers of brain diseases or psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia. This paper deals with the application of ensembles of Extreme Learning Machines (ELM) to build Computer Aided Diagnosis systems on the basis of features extracted from the activity measures computed over rs-fMRI data. The power of ELM to provide quick but near optimal solutions to the training of Single Layer Feedforward Networks (SLFN) allows extensive exploration of discriminative power of feature spaces in affordable time with off-the-shelf computational resources. Exploration is performed in this paper by an evolutionary search approach that has found functional activity map features allowing to achieve quite successful classification experiments, providing biologically plausible voxel-site localizations.
PMID: 25965771 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Changes in anatomical and functional connectivity of Parkinson's disease patients according to cognitive status.
Eur J Radiol. 2015 Apr 27;
Authors: Chen B, Fan GG, Liu H, Wang S
PURPOSE: This study assesses the patterns of structural and functional connectivity damage in patients with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) compared with cognitively unimpaired Parkinson's disease patients (PD-Cu) and healthy controls (HC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) scans were obtained from 30 PD and 21 sex- and age-matched HC. The between-group difference in posterior cingulate (PCC) functional connectivity (FC) was performed to assess FC dysfunction. Atlas-based spatial statistics of DTI was applied to compare White matter (WM) fibers impairment between groups.
RESULTS: (1) Functional connectivity: (1) PD-Cu compared with HC showed a decreased PCC functional connectivity of the right medial temporal lobe (MTL). In addition, PCC-right MTL connectivity strength of PD was significantly correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score. (2) PDD group shows a decreased FC of PCC-right parahippocampa compared with PD-Cu group; while show a widespread decreased PCC FC compared with HC group. (2) Anatomical connectivity: (1) Relative to PD-Cu, significant lower FA values were found in the left hippocampus in PDD. (2) PDD showed higher MD values in a widespread WM regions compared with PD-Cu and HC. (3) Positive correlation was observed between MoCA score and FA value of left inferior longitudinal and hippocampus, and bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus in PD.
CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive decline in PD is associated with FC damage of PCC-right MTL and microstructural damage of left hippocampus. Nevertheless, combining fMRI and DTI method may provide markers able to contribute to the prediction of PDD.
PMID: 25963506 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Functional Neuroimaging: Fundamental Principles and Clinical Applications.
Neuroradiol J. 2015 May 11;
Authors: Khanna N, Altmeyer W, Zhuo J, Steven A
Functional imaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), are rapidly changing the scope and practice of neuroradiology. While these modalities have long been used in research, they are increasingly being used in clinical practice to enable reliable identification of eloquent cortex and white matter tracts in order to guide treatment planning and to serve as a diagnostic supplement when traditional imaging fails. An understanding of the scientific principles underlying fMRI and DTI is necessary in current radiological practice. fMRI relies on a compensatory hemodynamic response seen in cortical activation and the intrinsic discrepant magnetic properties of deoxy- and oxyhemoglobin. Neuronal activity can be indirectly visualized based on a hemodynamic response, termed neurovascular coupling. fMRI demonstrates utility in identifying areas of cortical activation (i.e., task-based activation) and in discerning areas of neuronal connectivity when used during the resting state, termed resting state fMRI. While fMRI is limited to visualization of gray matter, DTI permits visualization of white matter tracts through diffusion restriction along different axes. We will discuss the physical, statistical and physiological principles underlying these functional imaging modalities and explore new promising clinical applications.
PMID: 25963153 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Tinnitus and hyperacusis involve hyperactivity and enhanced connectivity in auditory-limbic-arousal-cerebellar network.
Authors: Chen YC, Li X, Liu L, Wang J, Lu CQ, Yang M, Jiao Y, Zang FC, Radziwon K, Chen GD, Sun W, Krishnan Muthaiah VP, Salvi R, Teng GJ
Hearing loss often triggers an inescapable buzz (tinnitus) and causes everyday sounds to become intolerably loud (hyperacusis), but exactly where and how this occurs in the brain is unknown. To identify the neural substrate for these debilitating disorders, we induced both tinnitus and hyperacusis with an ototoxic drug (salicylate) and used behavioral, electrophysiological, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques to identify the tinnitus-hyperacusis network. Salicylate depressed the neural output of the cochlea, but vigorously amplified sound-evoked neural responses in the amygdala, medial geniculate, and auditory cortex. Resting-state fMRI revealed hyperactivity in an auditory network composed of inferior colliculus, medial geniculate, and auditory cortex with side branches to cerebellum, amygdala, and reticular formation. Functional connectivity revealed enhanced coupling within the auditory network and segments of the auditory network and cerebellum, reticular formation, amygdala, and hippocampus. A testable model accounting for distress, arousal, and gating of tinnitus and hyperacusis is proposed.
PMID: 25962854 [PubMed - in process]
A Common Polymorphism in SCN2A Predicts General Cognitive Ability through Effects on pFC Physiology.
J Cogn Neurosci. 2015 May 11;:1-9
Authors: Scult M, Trampush JW, Zheng F, Conley ED, Lencz T, Malhotra AK, Dickinson D, Weinberger DR, Hariri AR
Here we provide novel convergent evidence across three independent cohorts of healthy adults (n = 531), demonstrating that a common polymorphism in the gene encoding the α2 subunit of neuronal voltage-gated type II sodium channels (SCN2A) predicts human general cognitive ability or "g." Using meta-analysis, we demonstrate that the minor T allele of a common polymorphism (rs10174400) in SCN2A is associated with significantly higher "g" independent of gender and age. We further demonstrate using resting-state fMRI data from our discovery cohort (n = 236) that this genetic advantage may be mediated by increased capacity for information processing between the dorsolateral pFC and dorsal ACC, which support higher cognitive functions. Collectively, these findings fill a gap in our understanding of the genetics of general cognitive ability and highlight a specific neural mechanism through which a common polymorphism shapes interindividual variation in "g."
PMID: 25961639 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The trajectory of disturbed resting-state cerebral function in Parkinson's disease at different Hoehn and Yahr stages.
Hum Brain Mapp. 2015 May 9;
Authors: Luo C, Guo X, Song W, Chen Q, Yang J, Gong Q, Shang HF
OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the disturbance of neural network associated with the different clinical stages of Parkinson's disease (PD).
METHOD: We recruited 80 patients at different H&Y stages of PD (28 at H&Y stage I, 28 at H&Y stage II, 24 at H&Y stage III) and 30 normal controls. All participants underwent resting-state fMRI scans on a 3-T MR system. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of blood oxygen level-dependent signals was used to characterize regional cerebral function. Functional integration across the brain regions was evaluated by a seed voxel correlation approach.
RESULTS: PD patients had decreased regional activities in left occipital and lingual regions; these regions show decreased functional connection pattern with temporal regions, which is deteriorating as H&Y stage ascending. In addition, PD patients, especially those at stage II, exhibit increased regional activity in the posterior regions of default mode network (DMN), increased anticorrelation between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and cortical regions outside DMN, and higher temporal coherence within DMN. Those indicate more highly functioned DMN in PD patients at stage II.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated the trajectories of resting-state cerebral function disturbance in PD patients at different H&Y stages. Impairment in functional integration of occipital-temporal cortex might be a promising measurement to evaluate and potentially track functional substrates of disease evolution of PD. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 25959682 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Fast computation of voxel-level brain connectivity maps from resting-state functional MRI using l₁-norm as approximation of Pearson's temporal correlation: proof-of-concept and example vector hardware implementation.
Med Eng Phys. 2014 Sep;36(9):1212-7
Authors: Minati L, Zacà D, D'Incerti L, Jovicich J
An outstanding issue in graph-based analysis of resting-state functional MRI is choice of network nodes. Individual consideration of entire brain voxels may represent a less biased approach than parcellating the cortex according to pre-determined atlases, but entails establishing connectedness for 1(9)-1(11) links, with often prohibitive computational cost. Using a representative Human Connectome Project dataset, we show that, following appropriate time-series normalization, it may be possible to accelerate connectivity determination replacing Pearson correlation with l1-norm. Even though the adjacency matrices derived from correlation coefficients and l1-norms are not identical, their similarity is high. Further, we describe and provide in full an example vector hardware implementation of l1-norm on an array of 4096 zero instruction-set processors. Calculation times <1000 s are attainable, removing the major deterrent to voxel-based resting-sate network mapping and revealing fine-grained node degree heterogeneity. L1-norm should be given consideration as a substitute for correlation in very high-density resting-state functional connectivity analyses.
PMID: 25023958 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]